By David Richerson
What do the next issues have in universal: the gap travel, cosmetics, colour TVs, concrete, and kayaks? Ceramics! most of these goods are made up of or contain ceramics, the most typical and numerous of all fabrics - but such a lot folks will be stunned at its number of makes use of. you may be surprised by means of how ceramics make attainable such varied items as mobile telephones, a lot of your favourite carrying items, radio, tv, and lasers. you'll be shocked by means of how ceramics are utilized in drugs for melanoma remedies and restoring listening to, in our automobiles, or even in a few cosmetics. This e-book introduces readers to the numerous interesting purposes of ceramics. through the use of simplified technical motives, it solutions the query: How do ceramics increase your daily life? It describes how the ceramic fabric capabilities, and why it truly is greater to different fabrics, whereas educating key medical thoughts like atomic constitution, colour, and the electromagnetic spectrum.
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Additional resources for The Magic of Ceramics
For example, 80% alumina required heating to about 2600°F (1427"C), and 95% alumina required a furnace to operate above 2950°F (1621°C). New technology was successfully developed to design and build production furnaces to reach these temperatures, adding another key piece to the puzzle. Powder Processing. The final piece of the puzzle was to achieve a method that could produce, at low cost, thousands of tons of pure ceramic powders such as alumina. Large-scale chemical production of alumina powder had been developed by Bayer (the same company that introduced aspirin) clear back in 1888, to supply aluminum oxide raw material for aluminum metal production, but the Bayer powder contained too many sodium impurities to be useful for the new ceramics, Finally, by about 1936, scientists succeeded in producing highpurity, low-cost alumina powder on a large scale.
Longshan pottery was exquisitely refined and eggshell thin. Chinese ceramists created the rich black color by firing the pots under special “reducing” conditions that involved restricting the amount of oxygen in the kiln by plugging the air holes-much the same way we char a steak by putting the lid on our barbecue grill and closing the air vents. Firing under reducing conditions is still commonly done today to obtain special visual effects. Figure 3-4. Neolithic Chinese storage jar. Painted earthenware jar, 7 7 inches high, from the Yangshao culture, Banshan cultural phase of Cansu Province.
We now refer to this type of ceramic as stoneware. The Chinese slowly refined stoneware during the Shang Dynasty (1500 to 1066 BC) and Chou (Zhou) Dynasty (1155 t o 255 BC). A key discovery was the use of a white clay call kaolin, which needed a high temperature to fire properly. Pots made with kaolin were nearly white in color, rather than the various shades of brown and reddish tones of earthenware and prior stoneware. By around AD 600, Chinese potters had discovered another secret ingredient that they called petuntse.