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4 X 10 6 m. These conditions can be attained by magnetic containment which is discussed more fully in sect. 4. By raising the plasma density several orders of magnitude over that of solid hydrogen the required containment time is reduced to the trans­ mission time of an ion across the plasma. inertial containment1. There is no need for a confining struc­ ture and the thermonuclear reactions produce an explosive release of energy like a miniature H-bomb. The Lawson criterion is modified by putting τ ~ a/v .

Nature, 224, 448. J. et al. Rayleigh, The Lord. (1906). Philos. , 11, 117. L. (1968). "Advances in Plasma Physics", (A. B. Thompson, eds), vol. 101, Interscience, New York. F. W. (1973). Proc. IEEE, 61, 1443. 166, 903. C. (1950). Nature, Tonks, L. (1939). Phys. , 56, 360. Tonks, L. and Langmuir, I. (1929). Phys. N. (1977). "Theory of Turbulent Plasma", Consultants Bureau, New York. 2 Nuclear Fusion Research J. 1 MOTIVATION FOR FUSION RESEARCH The underlying goal is to provide a cheap, reliable widely distributed and abundant source of energy for the world's growing needs.

1 ) . However, if there is a gradient in the plasma density (or magnetic field) this can­ cellation is incomplete and there is a net 'diamagnetic current*. The resulting current density Jm is best obtained from the magnetization M of the plasma, given by the density of magnetic moments y =—\iB/B, due to all the gyro-motions. The magnetic moment (which is also an adiabatic invariant of the particle motion) is antiparallel to B and given by u = | (mv[/B). Thus, integrating over the distribution /( r, v) we obtain / = curl M = — curl m where p l ll'f'' = - c u r lx ( — 2± ) B ' χ r = (39) Ί m\ v l f d * v - The third current, due to the particle drift across the field, may immediately be obtained by integrating over the distribution f(r9v).

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