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By Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka

Phenomenology and existentialism reworked realizing and adventure of the 20th Century to their middle. that they had strikingly assorted inspirations and but the 2 waves of inspiration grew to become merged as either activities flourished. the current choice of examine dedicated to those activities and their unfolding interplay is now specifically revealing. The reviews during this first quantity to be by means of succeeding ones, diversity from the predecessors of existentialism – Kierkegaard/Jean Wahl, Nietzsche, to the paintings of its adherents – Shestov, Berdyaev, Unamuno, Blondel, Blumenberg, Heidegger and Mamardashvili, Dufrenne and Merleau-Ponty to existentialism’s congruence with Christianity or with atheism.

Among the best Husserlian insights are handled essence and event, where of wondering, ethics and intentionality, temporality and passivity and the existence world.

The following publication will discover the perennial matters guiding the wondrous interaction of those inspirational sources.

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36 See for example, Husserl, “Aus der Einleitung der Vorlesung ‘Erkenntnistheorie und Hauptpunkte der Metaphysik 1898/99’ ”, p. 232. 37 Husserl, Introduction to Logic and Theory of Knowledge, Lectures 1906/07, 32c. 38 Husserl, “Aus der Einleitung der Vorlesung ‘Erkenntnistheorie und Hauptpunkte der Metaphysik’ ”, pp. 232, 233, 252; Husserl, Introduction to Logic and Theory of Knowledge, Lectures 1906/07, §§20, 21. 39 Edmund Husserl, Logik, Vorlesung 1896, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2001, p. 5. Husserl, Logik, Vorlesung 1902/03, pp.

Among existential thinkers we find the Russian Jew, Lev Shestov. It is surprising to learn through the article he wrote in honour of Husserl just after the latter’s death, that it was Husserl himself who advised him to read Kierkegaard. Despite this significant fact, even L. Shestov saw Husserl as an impenitent representative of the Western rationalist philosophy, which prefers knowledge to life and ignores the singularity of the individuals and their life trials. But the existential question was also central to Heidegger’s Being and Time.

Even we could see, with Jean Wahl’interpretations, the Hegelian anticipation relatively to Kierkegaard, concerning the effort of the individual, struggling not to lose himself, agonizing over his life and essential nothingness, we must however also note how Kierkegaard points out with irony that Hegel’s system anyway denies the peculiarity of the individual engaged in the faith. According to Jean Wahl,18 during one moment Kierkegaard had thought of Abraham’s sacrifice it were justified by a previous Abraham’ fault; but he abandoned this idea and thought that “fear and shiver” represented God’s terrible character, His immense strength with regard to the human being.

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