By Robert R. McCrae PhD, Paul T. Costa Jr. PhD
Up to date and revised with an emphasis on balance in character via maturity. The Five-Factor concept is defined and contains new facts, really cross-cultural and longitudinal findings. earlier version: c1990.
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Additional resources for Personality in adulthood: a five-factor theory perspective
For example, an older person suffering a loss of vision may give up reading (selection) or may use higher-wattage lights (optimization), or may turn to audio books (compensation). Most people perceive a developmental curve (like Bühler’s curve of life) in SOC processes: Our options and abilities increase from childhood into midlife, and decline thereafter. SOC is not a theory of personality, but it is related to personality variables, because there are individual differences in the success with which SOC is applied.
In sheer quantity, however, self-report studies have far outnumbered observer rating studies, and perhaps the most important contribution of rating studies has been what they have been able to show about the validity of self-reports. Rate yourself on the six Extraversion items listed earlier on a 1-to-5 scale, and then ask a friend who knows you well to rate you. You may be surprised at the differences of opinion. We would be guilty of failing to learn from decades of criticism if we did not acknowledge that there is a substantial element of illusion in the views we hold of others (Fiske, 1978) and in our idea of what their view of us is like (Swann, 1983).
Baltes, 1997). This theory describes how individuals react to the opportunities 18 PERSONALITY IN ADULTHOOD and limitations that life presents at each point in the lifespan. Selection refers to the choice of goals; optimization to their effective pursuit; and compensation to the use of alternatives when established methods fail. For example, an older person suffering a loss of vision may give up reading (selection) or may use higher-wattage lights (optimization), or may turn to audio books (compensation).