By Dr Maj-Britt Mosegaard Hansen
The important objective of this research is to clarify the character of the semantics / pragmatics contrast in either synchrony and diachrony. the writer proposes a definition of semantics and pragmatics that's orthogonal to the query of truth-conditionality, and discusses the prestige of assorted varieties of that means with admire to this definition. A corollary target of the examine is to suggest an account of ways and why erstwhile pragmatically-determined components of which means might, during time, turn into semanticized. the character, paths, and mechanisms of diachronic feel adjustments of the suitable sort, in addition to the motivations for them, are mentioned in a few aspect. the writer combines insights from assorted assets, prominently frame-based semantics, ancient pragmatics, and Peircean semiotics, to reach at a version of linguistic that means that's either synchronically and diachronically dynamic, therefore able to integrating constitution and utilization. As a case learn, the synchronic makes use of and diachronic evolution of the particularly polyfunctional French phasal adverbs deja ('already'), encore ('still/yet'), toujours ('still'), and enfin ('finally') are analyzed in a few element, with specific cognizance being paid to the semantic vs pragmatic nature of many of the makes use of of this stuff. The booklet could be of curiosity to lexical semanticists, pragmaticians, ancient linguists, functional/cognitive linguists, discourse analysts, and semioticians.
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Did George W. Bush step down as President of the United States six weeks after World War III broke out? ) George W. Bush did not step down as President of the United States six weeks after World War III broke out – there never was a World War III! Frame semantics (cf. Fillmore 1985: 245ff) takes the view that presuppositions belong to semantics, since they require specific linguistic triggers in order to arise. Presuppositions are assumed to be backgrounded elements of meaning, as evidenced by the marked character of discourses in which the continuation of a presupposition-bearing utterance addresses itself to the presupposition rather than to the foregrounded message (cf.
I was going to suggest I chop some fire wood. [In a café at 10am] A. Do you want a croissant with your coffee? B. I had breakfast just an hour ago. A. OK, I’ll just order one for myself, then. This difference in cognitive status may explain why, in Levinson’s (1995, 2000) systematization of the notion of GCI, it is assumed that no GCI can be based on the maxim of quality: that maxim has to do with what is true and false about the world, and such matters will typically be part of the communicative foreground.
But even if one adheres – as I will do in this book, and as is done also by Harder (1996) and Nølke et al. (2004: 36) – to a less radical version of the instructional view of meaning, in which truth conditions may be seen as an important, but nevertheless derived, feature of communicated meanings, we may assume that a great many linguistic items (including not only lexical items, but also grammatical morphemes and constructions, such as the superlative, cf. Fauconnier 1975) have the property of instructing the hearer to understand the concepts marked by them as occupying a given rung on some scale.