Download Particle Physics and Astrophysics Current Viewpoints: by Peter Breitenlohner (auth.), Professor Dr. Heinrich Mitter, PDF

By Peter Breitenlohner (auth.), Professor Dr. Heinrich Mitter, Professor Dr. Fridebert Widder (eds.)

Eight rigorously written articles at the interactions among the tips and ideas of particle physics and people of astrophysics make up this booklet. lengthy introductory lectures provide a survey of recent innovations in particle physics and in astrophysics and cosmology, stressing gains of universal curiosity. the opposite six contributions care for the physics of supernova explosions, with black holes, with neutrino oscillations, with the significance of part transitions for the large-scale constitution of the Universe, and with using the guidelines of quantum gravity for desktop simulations. those relatively exact evaluation articles may be of price for a few years to come back. The publication is meant for graduate scholars and researchers either in particle physics and in astrophysics.

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Additional resources for Particle Physics and Astrophysics Current Viewpoints: Proceedings of the XXVII Int. Universitätswochen für Kernphysik Schladming, Austria, February 1988

Sample text

Observations do not unambigously give p+3p- 4~G ;::: o now, but if this inequality was satisfied at some past epoch, this implies a singularity, provided p + 3p was never smaller before that epoch. The inequalities p > 0 and p ;::: 0 are certainly satisfied by the kinds of matter known to us. The inequality p + 3p > 0 is certainly satisfied up to nuclear matter density. The singularity can be avoided only by a special choice of the cosmological constant A, and then R is always positive. This would make it difficult to explain the background radiation and would make it virtually impossible to explain the cosmic abundance of helium as a pregalactic phenomenon.

E. X-rays in the keY range. The efficiency of producing X-rays from black holes and neutron stars can be very high: about 10% of the rest mass energy of the infalling gas are converted into radiation. Therefore the accretion rates do not have to be very large: 10-8 M0/yr (~ 1018 g/sec) to 10-10 M 0 /yr (~ 1016 g/sec) are sufficient to give the powers observed. White dwarfs have radii around 109 cm, so black-body temperatures and accretion efficiencies are lower. It is much harder to make keY X-rays, and their luminosities are limited to a few times 1036 erg/sec.

M5/3 / R5 and 1 = const. M 1 / 3 R. For each mass there is a radius such that hydrostatic equilibrium is achieved. P = const. p4/3 (complete relativistic degeneracy) 1 = const. M 2 / 3 , independent of R. There is only one mass (MCH) for which hydrostatic equilibrium is possible (1931: controversy Eddington-Chandrasekhar about this fact. ). The fonnation of white dwarfs is not well understood. After central Hburning stars are in the upper right of the HR diagram. White dwarfs are in the lower left.

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