By C J Brabec; et al
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Extra info for Organic photovoltaics : concepts and realization
1): © The Author(s) 2015 M. Patil and P. 1007/978-81-322-2328-3_4 21 22 4 Buck Converter in Open Loop Fig. 1 The buck converter circuit. The arrow represents the power switch which is switched ON and OFF at very high frequency. The direction of the arrow is the direction of flow of current when the switch is turned ON Switch ON: Let us consider the state when the power switch is in ON condition. This connects the positive end of the power supply to the cathode of the diode. So, the diode D is reverse biased.
This high current equipment could be a 12 V motor or a power device like a MOSFET whose gate is connected to this transistor. 3 shows the opto coupler MCT2E pin out diagram. This opto controller photodiode is switched at PWM frequency from the microcontroller and based on the duty cycle, the power output to the devices is controlled. The microcontroller output is generally at 5 V with a duty cycle from 0 to 100 %. The isolation provided by the opto coupler keeps the ATtiny2313 chip is safe from destruction.
As seen in this ﬁgure, for reference voltage of 80 V, the output voltage with the ‘P’ controller stabilizes at about 76 V. This difference of 4 volts from the reference is a typical behavior of the ‘P’ controller. This difference is called the ‘Steady-State Error’ of the system. The steady-state error is a phenomenon that may be acceptable for some systems but may not be acceptable for other systems. For example, in an application like a UPS battery charger, a difference of a few volts from the desired reference may cause the system to draw excess current causing overheating of the battery.