By Nestor Schmajuk, Peter C. Holland
Over sixty years in the past, B. F. Skinner proposed discriminative stimulus in an operant conditioning paradigm doesn't elicit a reaction yet easily "sets the social gathering" for the reaction to ensue. extra lately, investigators have claimed that, while in lots of Pavlovian conditioning paradigms a conditioned stimulus (CS) elicits a conditioned reaction (CR) since it signs the prevalence of an unconditioned stimulus, in different paradigms a CS elicits a CR since it units the party for the responding produced through one other CS. The eminent workforce of experimental psychologists and theoreticians who authored the chapters of this publication speak about the present prestige of information and theories relating basic classical conditioning and celebration environment. half 1 compares the homes of easy stimuli and get together setters; half 2 analyzes the various paradigms during which the concept that of celebration surroundings could be utilized; and half three introduces 4 formal types of classical conditioning that deal with celebration atmosphere.
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Extra resources for Occasion Setting: Associative Learning and Cognition in Animals (Apa Science Volumes)
Both the results described here and more recent experiments reported by Rescorla himself now suggest that some degree of CS specificity must be accommodated within any viable theory of occasion setting (Rescorla, 1991a, 1991b; see Swartzentruber, 1995). Second, the present findings are inconsistent with Holland’s more recent formulation (1989a) that occasion setters act on both the CS and US, but separately so that they are not sensitive to the CS-US combination. These results are perhaps more easily accommodated by Holland’s original (1983) suggestion that occasion setters act on the CS-US association.
1985). Recovery of an overshad- 33 MILLER AND OBERLING owed association achieved by extinction of the overshadowing stimulus. Learn- ing and Motivation, 16, 398-412. Miller, R. , & Barnet, R. C. (1993). The role of time in elementary associations. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2, 106-1 11. Morrell, J. , & Holland, P. C. (1993). Summation and transfer of negative occasion setting. Animal Learning Q Behavior, 21, 145-153. Nakajima, S. ( 1994). Contextual control of Pavlovian feature-positive and featurenegative discriminations.
Terrace, & J. ), Autoshaping and conditioning theory (pp. 219-253). cademic Press. Gollin, E. S. (1966). Solution of conditional discriminations by young children. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 62, 454-456. Grahame, N. , Barnet, R. , Gunther, L. , & Miller, R. R. (1994). Latent inhibition as a performance deficit resulting from CS-context associations. Animal Learning ei Behavior, 22,395-408. Grahame, N . , Hallam, S. , & Miller, R. R. (1990). Context as an occasion setter following either CS acquisition and extinction or CS acquisition alone.