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By Author: M. V. Deshpande

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23 24 NOVEL BIOPFSTICIUES The second largest group is of fungi of which only 5 per cent species are known. In this roster, the 'known bacterial species count reaches around 5000. Among the pathogenic organisms a rough rule is that generally, bacteria are dangerous to human beings and fungi and insects to plants. So, in agriculture, the control of insects and fungi is of vital importance and much attention is being given to their control. Their natural enemies are being studied extensively in the hope that someday these natural enemies may strengthen the hands of the farmers in their fight against the pests.

Some are parasitic on crop plants. Plant parasitic nematodes spend part of their life cycle in soil or on the root surface. The biological control of nematodes is of two types, - natural and induced. Nematophagus fungi or literally, nematode eating fungi prevent susceptible nematode species from multiplying. These fungi are naturally associated with nematodes on perennial crops. More than 150 fungal species have been isolated from cyst and root-knot nematodes. Fungi in the soil may colonize the nematode female through its natural openings or by penetrating its cuticle.

Fungal friends 40 NOVEL BlOPESTICIDES ease incidences. Some of the Trichoderma species are parasitic on fungi and grow inside the hyphae of pathogens. In addition to the invasion, these fungi produce antibiotics and cell wall degrading enzymes. That means, it mounts a two pronged attack on the pathogen. Another fungus, Pythium oligandrum is effective against Verticillium damping-off diseas in sugar beet. Such farmer friendly fungus can be used as seed dressings. Before sowing, seeds are mixed with fungal spores erswell as mycelia along with a suitable adhesive so that they adhere well the seeds.

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