By N. Bom
Present day cardiology is in nice desire of non invasive, non poisonous, and cheap units which enable the delineation and visualization of standard and irregular intracardiac buildings, the calculation of intra cardiac volumes and examine of contractility of the cardiac muscle. All of those could turn into inside of our succeed in if the foundations defined during this e-book and the initial medical adventure could be established mostly cardiac training. The gist of 1 of the units (visualization of the in vivo relocating middle recorded on a brief movie) is out there to the reader on a sixteen mm filmstrip. Rotterdam, June 1972 P. G. Hugenholtz Professor of Cardiology CONTENTS bankruptcy I creation TO ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY nine 1. common feedback nine 2. function of this research 10 bankruptcy II ideas OF ULTRASOUND 12 The piezo-electric impact 1- 12 2. a few actual homes of ultrasound thirteen a. Attenuation thirteen b. mirrored image of sound thirteen c. close to and much box thirteen three. Scanning and recording innovations 15 a. instance of intensity sonar 15 b. A-scan and Time-Motion recording 17 c. unmarried aspect 8-scan ideas 17 four. The Doppler impact 17 bankruptcy III current functions IN CARDIOLOGY 19 1. basic feedback 19 2. Mitral stenosis 20 three. Pericardial effusion 23 four. different functions 26 a. Mitral insufficiency 26 b. Tricuspid stenosis 26 c. Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis 26 d. Aortic valve examine 26 e. inner dimensions 27 five. at the use of Doppler 28 6.
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Additional info for New Concepts in Echocardiography
R;' .. ::... " -aE element,' " "0 ~ .. figure 6-8 Directivity pattern of 8 cophasal elements measured in a plane perpendicular to the catheter tip main axis. ia. 05 co ~ "! _ 80. 0- 10- J angle [d gr es With a catheter tip, positioned off center in a circular reflector, the zone where erroneous echoes may arise on the display has been constructed as shown in figure 6-9. For this, the correct echogram had to be rotated by approximately 58 degrees in either direction (side lobe directions; see figure 6-8).
05 co ~ "! _ 80. 0- 10- J angle [d gr es With a catheter tip, positioned off center in a circular reflector, the zone where erroneous echoes may arise on the display has been constructed as shown in figure 6-9. For this, the correct echogram had to be rotated by approximately 58 degrees in either direction (side lobe directions; see figure 6-8). figure 6-9 Construction of position (dotted circles) where erroneous echo display may occur with catheter tip eccentrically positioned in a circular reflector.
Such devices have been described by James,74 McCartney," Fenby,76 and others for sonar and radar applications. At the usually low maritime sonar frequencies these arrays are quite substantial (diameter in the order of a few meters). The above-mentioned techniques could be made applicable to miniature high frequency arrays such as a multi-element catheter tip in the megahertz frequency range, if it were possible to bUild a corresponding miniature sonar array without loss of required acoustic properties.