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M. and steroids and immunosuppressive drugs in SLE. 2. Treatment of complications as infection by antibiotics and under nutrition by giving proper dieting, minerals and vitamins. 3. Rest in bed during exacerbation to promote diuresis and early ambulation with remission to avoid DVT. 4. Diet: salt restricted supported with vitamins especially vitamin D and calcium. g. a 60 kg patient who loses 10 gm daily should be given 70 gm protein containing diet. 5. g. g. ). In severe resistant cases doses up to 120 mg.

This explains the prevelence of this disease in countries with better health programs. The disease affects both juvenile and adult onset diabetics, but juvenile diabetics manifest the disease more; since they survive longer with the disease. Adult onset diabetics usually die earlier with coronary or cerebral strokes. In Juvenile diabetics, nephropathy passes into 6 stages: 1- very early stage in which GFR is supernormal, 2- stage of microalbuminuria, 3stage of clinical proteinuria, 4- stage of nephrotic syndrome, and hypertension, 5- stage of renal impairment then, 6- stage of end stage renal failure.

Complement deficiency may be a promoting factor. Not all SLE patients will show clinically evident renal involvement. But, if kidney biopsies are obtained and examined thoroughly, all patients will show glomerular disease. In clinical practice lupus nephritis is responsible for more than 5% of patients presenting with glomerulonephritis. Sometimes renal manifestations are the main presentation of SLE patient with minor systemic disease. Clinical Manifestations of Lupus Nephritis: It is known that 50-90% of lupus patients will show manifestation(s) of renal disease.

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