By Emel Akçalı
This quantity is a theoretical research of the present crises of nation and societal variations within the heart East and North Africa. The emphasis at the impression and boundaries of neoliberal governmentality areas those uprisings in the particular contextual and structural setting of neoliberal globalization.
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Extra info for Neoliberal Governmentality and the Future of the State in the Middle East and North Africa
155). Dawisha’s (2008) description of Iraqi politics from the beginning until 2003 as ethnosectarian seems an accurate summary of what has happened and why sectarian and nationalist sentiments still operate in the Iraqi territory as well. State-Rebuilding Process in Iraq since 2003 We have stated above that the Eurocentric concept of neoliberal governmentality has been used as a governmental technique in Iraq since 2003, as an ongoing process in which state, societal, and individual relations have been The Failure of the State (Re)Building Process in Iraq ● 39 regulated with the hope of creating an active civil society, and prioritizing individual entrepreneurship.
When compared to the postrevolutionary Arab states, the case of Iraq where the sectarian identifications are very strong is an exception since its state rebuilding process began after the US invasion in 2003 and it is widely accepted by now that the idea of delivering or imposing democracy in Iraq has mostly failed. There is still no effective and sustainable state structure in the eyes of the Iraqi people and the Sunni protests against the central government, the consistent violence, the Kurdish efforts for independence, and finally the invasion of Mosul by ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and al-Sham, currently declared itself an Islamic State) indicate the level of such challenge.
60–91) or the “middle class poor” of Asef Bayat (2013 p. 34)—is described as defective. This is due to the nature of the political system (autocracy), or to internal divisions created by political Islam. In other words, all these accounts privilege internalist processes of political change. What these explanations fail to recognize is that the process of class formation is connected as much to external factors as to internal ones. Sandra Halperin (2005) noted long ago that the systematic crushing of left-radical groups during the Cold War led to massive outmigration of the middle class, skewing the balance between different classes and thwarting the emergence of vivid class consciousness (a key ingredient to class participation in political processes).