By Chris Alden (auth.)
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Extra resources for Mozambique and the Construction of the New African State: From Negotiations to Nation Building
It will assess the impact of the peace process upon the subsequent nature of the state and its ability to fulﬁl the requirements of post-conﬂict peacebuilding. The elements of negotiation The movement from conﬂict to negotiation in Mozambique conformed to the general pattern of transitions from authoritarianism, that is the failure to achieve political objectives through military means which brought elements within the warring parties to consider a negotiated avenue for resolving their conﬂict.
39 Emerging out of this dire situation was a Declaration on Humanitarian Assistance on 16 July 1992. It stated that humanitarian assistance would be delivered on a ‘non-discriminatory basis’, that UN and International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) representatives and/or food shipments would be given access to all territory in Mozambique and any persons seeking humanitarian assistance would be allowed freedom of movement to do so. 40 This was a crucial breakthrough for the negotiations, as it represented the ﬁrst concrete expression of the necessity of cooperation between the two foes.
The primacy of the party made all signiﬁcant appointments contingent upon political afﬁliation. At the same time, the changes in ﬁrst economic and then political policy were accompanied by growing divisions within the party between hardliners and moderates as to the policy direction it should take. These ideological ﬁssures were complicated by internal ethnic divisions, which increasingly pitted the ideologically minded white, mestizo and Indian members of the party against the black Africans on issues like conscription into the army and the relative absence of black Mozambicans in positions of authority in the party.