By Daniel Harbour
Quantity is an immense learn area in semantics, syntax and morphology. despite the fact that, no present conception of quantity is appropriate to all 3 fields. during this paintings, the writer argues unified concept is not just attainable, yet priceless for the research of common Grammar. via insightful research of surprising info, the writer exhibits that one and a similar function set is implicated in semantic and morphological quantity phenomena alike, with syntax appearing because the conduit among the 2. on the middle of the research is an unique remedy of Kiowa, a North American language with a outstanding constellation of features, together with semantically established noun category and intricate contract morphology. This quantity offers: (1) the principles of a unified morphosemantic concept of quantity; (2) perception into the movement of knowledge from the lexicon, through syntax, into the morphology; (3) wide-ranging issues: nominal semantics, noun sessions, DP syntax, contract, suppletion, complicated morphology.
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Additional info for Morphosemantic Number: From Kiowa Noun Classes to UG Number Features
Agreement on the verb covaries with referential cardinality as well as with morphological marking on the noun. Four types of agreement are observed: (6) Notation: Agreement types s, d, p, i As a rule of thumb, s, mnemonic for ‘singular’, occurs when referential cardinality is 1; d, mnemonic for ‘dual’, occurs when referential cardinality is 2; and p, mnemonic for ‘plural’, occurs when referential cardinality is 3. 3 and below); i-agreement can occur when referential cardinality is 1, 2, or 3. Kiowa nouns do not all trigger the same agreement type for a given referential cardinality.
In the case of ‘doll’, the nature of this likeness is clear, but it leads one to ask what other core properties of animacy inanimates may share. Self-propulsion or the ability to determine the course of motion is one such property. b, p. 3) The availability of the collective ‘herd(s)’ makes this word diﬀerent from sdi animals. ´O´O ‘river’ as an sdi noun, which might be explicable on these lines. For my consultants, it is sds, however. ´Oˇ´Oˇ ‘spoon’. She suggests for the latter that being made of animal material is relevant—Kiowas frequently made spoons from horn, an sdi body part.
But no aspirated one. Kiowa has six vowels, high, mid and low, front and back: i e a u o O. These have their IPA values, except for u, IPA [U]; O, IPA ; and a, IPA , fronting to [a] after palatalized velars (unless part of the diphthong ai). All the back vowels and the front low vowel form diphthongs with i; however, this is pronounced as IPA [e] if the ﬁrst vowel is low: hence ai [5e] and Oi [6e]. Vowels contrast for length, tone, and nasality (but diphthongs only for tone and nasality).