By Reuven Amitai-Preiss
For sixty years, from 1260 to 1323, the Mamluk nation in Egypt and Syria was once at conflict with the Ilkhanid Mongols dependent in Persia. this can be the 1st accomplished learn of the political and armed forces facets of the early years of the battle, from the conflict of 'Ayn Jalut in 1260 to the conflict of Homs in 1281. In among those campaigns, the Mamluk-Ilkhanid fight was once persisted within the demeanour of a 'cold warfare' with either side fascinated by border skirmishes, diplomatic manoeuvres, and espionage. right here, as within the significant battles, the Mamluks frequently maintained the higher hand, constructing themselves because the most well known Muslim energy on the time. by way of drawing on formerly untapped Persian and Arabic assets, the writer sheds new mild at the war of words, interpreting the warfare in the context of Mongol/Mamluk kinfolk with the Byzantine Empire, the Latin West and the Crusading states.
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Additional resources for Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Īlkhānid War, 1260-1281
233a, and appears to be an unjustified extrapolation by Maqrizi. Various Armenian sources write that Hiilegii went to Damascus and Jerusalem: Kirakos, in E. , 11 (1858):498; Grigor of Akancc [Akner], "History of the Nation of the Archers," tr. and ed. P. N. Frye, HJAS12 (1949):349; Stepcanos Orbellian, in M. Brosset, Histoire de la Siounnie (St. Petersburg, 1860-4), 1:227, but this surely must be understood to mean that Mongol troops reached these cities. Ibn Wasil, MS. 1703, fols. 150a, 151a-b.
D . Ayalon, "Aspects of the Mamluk Phenomenon: Ayyubids, Kurds and Turks," Der Islam 54 (1977): 1-32. Ayalon, "Aspects," 2 3 - 5 . A discussion of al-$alih Ayyub's mamluk policy is found in A. Levanoni, "The Mamluks' Ascent to Power in Egypt," 5 / 7 2 (1990): 122-6; Thorau, Baybars, 14^23. Nuwayrl, Nihayat al-arab, MS. , MS. Or. 2m, fol. 114a. ), 255; Qalqashandl, $ubh al-dsha (Cairo, 1913-19), 4:458; Ayalon, "Yasa," pt. S. Humphreys, "The Emergence of the Mamluk Army," 5 / 4 5 (1977):95-6. Egypt and Syria 19 Mansura.
Cf. also the c o m m e n t in T h o r a u , Baybars, 73 n. 56. Ibn a l - A m l d , 172; A b u S h a m a , 203; Ibn Wasil, M S . 1703, fol. 150a-b; A b u '1-Fida', 3:210; K u t u b l , 20:222; Ibn al-Furat, M S . Vatican, fol. 2 3 2 a - b ; Maqrtzl, 1:423. 30 The battle of cAyn Jalut Shahrazuri Kurds,28 Turkmen, assorted deserters from his army and his brother al-Zahir. Heading this ragtag force al-Nasir continued on to Qatya. Instead of marching on to Cairo, however, al-Nasir's fear of Qutuz got the better of him and he turned around and rode into the desert with a small entourage.