By Jeremy I. Pfeffer
This quantity originated from the necessity for an appropriate pupil textual content for the direction «An creation to fashionable Physics» given on the Hebrew college of Jerusalem. The direction is open to all scholars who've accomplished the traditional first-year physics path in mechanics, optics, electrical energy and magnetism. Its basic aim is to supply graduates who're - no matter what their box of specialization - «modern-physics-literate». The presentation of the path fabric emphasizes the actual points of the phenomena.
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Additional info for Modern Physics: An Introductory Text
The implications of this null result were awesome. Evidently, terrestrial measurements of the speed of light do not depend on the direction of the light’s propagation relative to the earth’s motion; the propagation of light is not analogous to the propagation of sound there is no luminiferous Ether; the earth does not move through the ather as it orbits the sun; and light waves are not Ether waves. In an attempt to ‘save the Ether’ and to account for the null result of the Michelson and Morley experiment within the framework of the Newtonian conception of motion and the Galilean transformation, it was suggested that the Ether is somehow dragged along with the earth in its motion through space, such that their relative velocity is zero.
The electromagnetic waves whose existence the equations posit can travel backwards or forwards in time; the equations do not tell us whether waves arrive before or after they were emitted. Because we never seem to observe radio waves travelling backwards in time, the backward-in-time solutions of the equations are usually dismissed as being ‘unphysical’. Nature exhibits an intrinsic awareness of past-future, the so called Arrow of Time, that has yet to be satisfactorily incorporated into scientific theories.
Nor is the opposite true: the Ptolemaic description is no better than the Copernican. In fact, any motion described by the one can be replicated and accounted for by the other. Given sufficiently complex mathematical devices, the celestial motions can be accurately and precisely described from anywhere. 23 Physical laws which take the same form for all observers, irrespective of their position or motion, are said to be covariant. A quantity whose measured value is unaffected by the position or motion of the observer is said to be invariant.