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By Josef W. Meri

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189/749–750) and Abu Yusuf (d. 192/798), who have preserved Abu Hanifa’s doctrines and opinions in their works. From these works it becomes apparent that Abu Hanifa’s legal thought was based to a considerable degree on his personal opinions (ra’y) and that his conclusions were derived through legal reasoning (qiyas). In his theology, Abu Hanifa showed concern for maintaining the unity and harmony of the Muslim community; his time was racked with communal strife, and so he sought a middle ground between extremes.

Abd al-Latif al-Bagdadi’s Bearbeitung von Buch Lambda der Aristotelischen Metaphysik (Kitab ma ba’d al-Tabi’a, Maqalat Lam). Wiesbaden, 1976. ———, ed and comm. ‘‘Neue Materialien zur Arabischen Tradition der Beiden Ersten Metaphysik-Buecher’’ (Kitab ma ba‘d al-tabi‘a, maqalat alif). Welt des Islams XVIII (1978): 84–100. , ed. and trans. Der Diabetestraktat. Bonn, 1971. A. E. Videan, eds. and trans. The Eastern Key (Kitab al-Ifada wa-l-i’Tibar). London, 1965. Further Reading Richter-Bernburg, Lutz.

With Abu ’l-Fadl’s death, Akbar lost a close friend and supporter. SAJJAD H. RIZVI See also Akbar; Illuminationism; Mughals; Sufism; Shi‘ism 9 ABU ’L-FADL ‘ALLAMI (1551–1602) Further Reading Haider, Mansura, trans. Mukatabat-i ‘Allam, (Insha’-i Abu’l-Fazl), 2 vols. New Delhi: Munshira Manoharlal, 1998–2000. Jinarajadasa, C. Abul-Fazl and Akbar. Madras: Theosophical Publishing House, 1934. A. The Socio-Religious Outlook of Abu’l-Fazl. Aligarh: University Press, 1972. A. Religious and Intellectual History of the Muslims in Akbar’s Reign.

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