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Additional info for Meaning and Grammar: Cross-Linguistic Perspectives
As for verbs, Bybee (1985: 23) has noted that number distinctions are much more often lexicalized than are person and gender categories, because, she explains, the latter "seem to have little effect on the meaning of a verb", whereas The number of participants in a situation, whether agents or recipients of an action, can affect the situation profoundly. Thus lexicalized distinctions based at least in part [upon] the number of participants do exist, e. , English run vs. stampede, murder vs. massacre.
Syntax and Semantics, 3. New York: Academic Press, 41 — 58. ", in: J. Habermas, Communication and the Evolution of Society. Boston: Beacon, 1—68. 1971 "Vorbereitende Bemerkungen zu einer Theorie der kommunikativen Kompetenz", in: Jürgen Habermas —Niklas Luhmann, Theorie der Gesellschaft oder So^ialtechnologie: was leistet die Systemforschung? Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 101-141. Hansen, Aage 1967 Moderne dansk I—III. Kobenhavn: Grafisk. Hawkins, John A. 1983 Word order universals. New York and London: Academic Press.
Non-standard states of affairs Having assumed the situation described above as standard, we will now look at a number of situations that deviate from that standard. The two referents in the Standard Transitive State of Affairs each have a number of properties. These same properties can have other distributions than they have in the Standard Transitive State of Affairs. They can, for example, be assigned to the same referents, but in a different combination, or to one or three referents instead of two.