By Vladimir I. Arnold, Valery V. Kozlov, Anatoly I. Neishtadt,

The most function of the booklet is to acquaint mathematicians, physicists and engineers with classical mechanics as a complete, in either its conventional and its modern facets. As such, it describes the basic ideas, difficulties, and techniques of classical mechanics, with the emphasis firmly laid at the operating equipment, instead of the actual foundations or purposes. Chapters disguise the n-body challenge, symmetry teams of mechanical structures and the corresponding conservation legislation, the matter of the integrability of the equations of movement, the speculation of oscillations and perturbation conception.

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**Sample text**

The functions q(t) deﬁning the motion of the constrained system satisfy the equation (Tq˙ )˙− Tq = Q. If the forces F1 , . . 1), then the form Qj (q) dqj is the total diﬀerential of some smooth function V (q). Then it is natural to introduce the function L = T + V and rewrite the equation of motion in the form of Lagrange’s equation (Lq˙ )˙ = Lq . This immediately implies that the motions of the mechanical system coincide with the extremals of the variational problem t2 L dt = 0. δ t1 “Oddly enough, in Lagrange’s work this principle is stated only between the lines; this could be whence the strange fact developed that this relation in Germany – mainly through the works of Jacobi – and thereby also in France is universally called Hamilton’s principle, whereas in England nobody understands this expression; there this equality is called rather by a correct but undescriptive name of the principle of stationary action” (F.

If on the plane we are given n point vortices with intensities Γs and coordinates (xs , ys ), then it is natural to consider the stream function Ψ =− 1 2π n Γk ln (x − xs )2 + (y − ys )2 . 41). 7) the vortices are “frozen” into the ideal ﬂuid and their intensities do not change with time. Consequently11 , it is natural to describe the dynamics of the vortices themselves by the system of diﬀerential equations ∂Ψ , ∂ys 1 Ψ =− 2π y˙ s = − x˙ s = Γk ln ∂Ψ ; ∂xs (xs − xk )2 + (ys − yk )2 . k=s If we introduce the function H=− 11 1 2π Γs Γk ln k=s This argument is of heuristic nature.

Consequently, in this case the Hamiltonian takes quite a simple form: H= 1 2 (p cos 2 ϕ + p2ϕ ) − x. 2 x The canonical equations with this Hamiltonian function are probably nonintegrable. But we can draw qualitative conclusions about the sliding of the vakonomic skate. Since p˙x = −Hx = 1, the momentum px is equal to t up to an additive constant. 59) ϕ¨ = t2 sin ϕ cos ϕ. 57) the equations for ﬁnding the Cartesian coordinates of the contact point x˙ = t cos 2 ϕ, y˙ = t sin ϕ cos ϕ. 46 1 Basic Principles of Classical Mechanics It follows from the ﬁrst equation that the skate is monotonically sliding oﬀ down the inclined plane.