By Wendy Anderson, Ellen Bramwell, Carole Hough
This quantity bargains an empirical and diachronic research of the rules and nature of metaphor in English. Metaphor is among the sizzling issues in present-day linguistics, with an enormous variety of study targeting the systematic connections among assorted options akin to warmth and anger (fuming, inflamed), sight and realizing (clear, see), or our bodies and panorama (hill-foot, river-mouth). till lately, the inability of a finished facts resource made it tough to acquire an summary of this phenomenon in any language, yet this replaced with the crowning glory in 2009 of The historic word list of English, the single ancient glossary ever produced for any language. Chapters during this quantity use this specified source as a foundation for case reports of semantic domain names together with Animals, color, demise, worry, foodstuff, studying, and robbery, offering an important leap forward within the data-driven figuring out of metaphor.
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Additional resources for Mapping English Metaphor Through Time
1 a). A similar sense development is evidenced for OE wytruma ‘root’, which develops a topographical meaning ‘foot (of hill)’. Some of the connections might plausibly be associated with metaphors discussed elsewhere in this chapter. ). Like so many other aspects of linguistics, metaphors have fuzzy edges, and it may be counter-productive to attempt to pin them down too closely. Conclusion ‘Landscape, high and low land’ is generally the target category for metaphorical links with other physical categories in the External World (), but the source category for links with categories in the Mental World () and the Social World (), as well as with non-physical categories in the External World.
V. 4 Here too, shape is a motivating factor, with the characteristic shape of receptacles such as cup, punchbowl, and trough being used metaphorically to describe hollows. However, entailments of the metaphor may extend to the contents of the container, as reﬂected in transferred senses relating to water features. v. cauldron, n. a). LANDSCAPE IS A BUILDING Buildings provide the source domain for a range of metaphors. g. Grady a; Kövecses a: –). . Categories providing evidence of LANDSCAPE IS A BUILDING metaphor Category Sample OE lexemes Sample post-OE lexemes B Buildings and inhabited places M Performance arts and ﬁlm M Sport cofa ‘room, cave’; hrycg ‘ridge, roof ’; scylf ‘crag, gable’ — bench, cabin, chamber, chimney, ﬂoor, mantelshelf, roof, saddle-back, stairway amphitheatre, circus, pit, theatre — amphitheatre, cirque 4 When combined with a term for a spring, however, occurrences of OE byden and OE canne in placenames may be literal, referring to a spring provided with a drinking-vessel for travellers (cf.
More neutral is the use of mountain, the prototypical term for a large landscape feature, to represent greatness of quantity. This is probably related to the use of mountained and mountainous to represent large size, one of the main attributes of mountains, reﬂected in overlap with ‘Size and spatial extent’. The terms are most clearly metaphorical when applied to abstract domains, as in the following OED quotations: When Giant-Vice and Irreligion rise On mountain’d falsehoods to invade the skies.