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By E. M. Yamauchi

Edwin Yamauchi obtained his Ph.D. in Mediterranean reviews from Brandeis college in 1964, the place he studied below Cyrus H. Gordon. Mandaic Incantation Texts is the revision of his dissertation, which used to be initially released in 1967 within the American Oriental Society monograph sequence. It contains a number of the earliest Mandaic texts, that are magic scrolls and inscribed bowls, relationship from approximately six hundred C.E., including transcriptions and translations, a grammar, and a lexicon. After educating at Rutgers, the kingdom college of recent Jersey, until eventually 1969, Professor Yamauchi taught at Miami collage (Oxford, Ohio) till his retirement in 2005. he's the writer of diverse books together with Gnostic Ethics and Mandaean Origins (originally released via Harvard college Press, and lately reprinted by means of Gorgias Press) and Pre-Christian Gnosticism.

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Lambert points out an exceptional case o! identification in the Maqlu series III, 151- 55: "I am heaven ••• I am the underworld ••• I am the prickle o! a thorn bush ••• I am the sting o! a scorpion ••• I am a mountain peak •••• 101 H. THE INCANTATIONS To the Mandaeans writing is a sacred art and the letters o! the alphabet represent the powers o! life and o! light. "The re- cital o! the letters o! the alphabet is a form o! exorcism o! evil spirits, each letter having magical power. 11102 Many o!

E. 78 Even Jesus Christ, ordinarily regarded as a false messiah, is invoked for healing in the magical texts: And she (the spirit of Wailing) was made impotent by the name of the Seven Angels that govern the children 76 Alfred Metraux, Voodoo in Haiti (New York, 1959), p. 362. 77Drower, ~· (1943), p. 162. , p. 154. 35 of men ••• and Weakness, daughter, sister, of Death so that she shall flee away and be rendered harmless by the vaunted name of Jesu Christ, son of the Remover. He is the healer of the souls of boy-child and girl-child •••• 79 The early church also had problems with not only the laity but also some of the clergy who sought magical aid from pagan sources.

52 The Labarwin particular seems to have imparted her violent hatred for human children to the Mandaic and the Aramaic lilith. Her wild and disheveled- appearance fits the pictures of the lilith that often occur on the bowls: ••• elle est furieurse~ elle est impetueuse, elle est deesse, elle est terrible et elle est comme un leopard, la Fille de Anu. • •• sa chevelure est en desordre, ses seins sont decouverts •••• 53 The Lamashtu was another female demon who was represented as a naked female figure, standing on the back of an ass, with her hair 50 R.

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