By Jelle O. Barentsz
Carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a typical (in america it's the 5th commonest kind of melanoma in men and 10th commonest kind of melanoma in women) malignan cy and one within which noninvasive staging by way of imaging performs such an immense position. This publication provides an entire method of MR imaging of carcinoma of the urinary bladder from a close dialogue of the worth of MRI within the prognosis of the urinary bladder to the heritage of the approach. The technical dialogue of the overall ideas of MRI together with the optimum pulse sequences for use and components that impression the standard of pictures are integrated during this ebook. the protection components also are offered in addition to contraindications. the appliance of a double floor coil with the sphere power of O.5T presents the top quality of the illustrations. The atlas of comparative anatomy by means of MRI on general volunteers and post-mo'rtem specimens in addition to MR photos on sufferers with bladder tumors and post-surgery specimens is exclusive. the result of the medical imaging stu dies in sufferers with carcinoma of the bladder, evaluating the relative price of scientific staging, MR, CT and lymphography, are worthwhile in displaying the benefits of MRI.
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Additional info for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder
The average age of the patients was 73 years. The final histologic diagnosis was transitional cell carcinoma (13 patients) and anaplastic carcinoma (1 patient). Tissue for histologic diagnosis was obtained by means of cystectomy (3 patients) or by deep transurethral resection (11 patients). 5 cm) and the exact location of the tumor were known. 5 T was used (Gyroscan SI5). From three series of T I-weighted (SE/500/3012) MR images, made in three planes perpendicular to each other, the slice giving the best view of the tumor was determined.
These forces can be considerable. New et al. 47-T magnetic field. Considerable rotation ensu~d, which, however, did not result in the vessel being torn loose. The risk of traction and torsion depends on the strength and the gradient of the magnetic field, - the magnetization component of the ferromagnetic implant 26 - - GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MRI the mass, form, and degree of ferromagnetism of the implant (this dependens on the alloy and, unfortunately, is often unknown), the anatomic location of the implant, the fixation of the implant to the surrounding structures, and finally the vulnerability of the tissues to which the implant is attached.
This artifact can be reduced by: 1. lowering the field strength of the magnetic field: the fat shift (expressed in Hertz) is directly proportional to the field strength (Fig. 2-9). 4), 2. interchanging the 'readout' and 'preparation' directions. 2-1O), 3. making the readout gradient steeper; 4. making use of a certain recording technique that produces a 'fat' and 'water' image. These images can then be combined into an image free of chemical artifact. 3 Artifacts caused by patients movement I These artifacts can be recognized as: 1.