Download Lung Biology in Health & Disease Volume 181 Upper and Lower by Jonathan Corren, Alkis Togias, Jean Bousquet PDF

By Jonathan Corren, Alkis Togias, Jean Bousquet

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Extra info for Lung Biology in Health & Disease Volume 181 Upper and Lower Respiratory Disease

Sample text

Nasal Airways The nose receives its blood supply from both the internal and external carotid circulations via the ophthalmic and internal maxillary arteries, respectively (Fig. 10). The ophthalmic artery gives rise to the anterior and posterior ethmoid arteries, which supply the anterosuperior portion of the septum, the lateral nasal walls, the olfactory region, and a small part of the posterosuperior region. The external carotid artery gives rise to the internal maxillary artery, which ends as the sphenopalatine artery.

Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery. 2nd ed. St. ) Comparative Airway Anatomy 5 attached along their superior borders to the lateral nasal wall. Their unattached inferior portions curve inward toward the lateral nasal wall, resulting in a convex surface that faces the nasal septum medially. They not only increase the mucosal surface of the nasal cavity to about 100 to 200 cm2 but regulate airflow by alternating their vascular content, hence thickness, through the state of their capacitance vessels (3).

The normal nasal mucosa was found to contain cells with positive IL-4 immunoreactivity, with 90% of these cells also staining positive for mast cell tryptase, suggesting that they were mast cells. Immunoreactivity for IL-5 and IL-6 was present in 75% of the normal nasal biopsy samples, and IL-8 positive cells were found in all the normal nasal tissue samples. A median 50% of IL-5+ cells and 100% of the IL-6+ cells were mast cells. In contrast to the other cytokines, IL-8 was largely confined to the cytoplasm of epithelial cells.

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