By W Anthony Holmes-Walker
This publication permits readers with out expert wisdom to appreciate the ways that fabrics can be utilized to reinforce people’s lives. the diversity is monstrous — from easy touch makes use of, via man made limbs, to completely implanted units.
To savour the scientific purposes of fabrics, it's important to appreciate why they're used. hence, a dialogue at the nature and behavior of fabrics is preceded through a survey of the evolution of recent surgical innovations. The impact of "foreign" fabrics at the body’s immune approach is then thought of, via a learn of particular makes use of of fabrics, together with extra-corporeal machines and implanted units.
The final bankruptcy bargains with new and hugely subtle concepts — together with minimum entry surgical procedure, robotics, nanotechnology, average polymers, and the expansion of "artificial" organs — and concludes with a glance on the destiny.
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Extra resources for Life-Enhancing Plastics Plastics and Other Materials in Medical Applications
11. The Repair of Defective Heart Valves We can divide disorders of the heart valves into two categories: * * Those which develop as a result of disease or other damage Those which are inherent - usually fiom birth. In addition to damage by infection, the valves between the chambers of the heart are subject to wear and tear. Each valve opens and closes some 30 million times a Surgical Techniques 19 year-a staggering two thousand million ( 2 x lo9) over an average lifetime! As a result, several things may happen, the valves may begin to leak, or may become narrowed (stenosis), and can start to obstruct the normal flow of blood.
In 1921, the Swedish surgeon C 0 Nylen used a single eyepiece microscope to operate on the small bones of the inner ear. A further step towards greater accuracy resulted from the use of binocular microscopes, which gave the surgeon a sense of depth. The ways in which microscopes are used vary considerably: in some cases the ocular systems are worn by the surgeon like a pair of highly magnifying spectacles, while in others (Fig. I . 12) the microscope is mounted centrally and contains a number of eyepieces, so that several members of the team can look at the same time.
Thermoplastics, too, find a parallel in nature; namely in animal horn which, from earliest times, was softened by heat and pressed into shapes, which were retained on cooling. We shall return to the concept of the dual nature of plastics later when we come to consider how we can create specific polymer properties. The Polymer Chain The concept of the polymer chain was first put forward in 1922 by the German chemist Hermann Staudinger (1881-1965), who was awarded the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1953.