By D. A. Cruse
Lexical Semantics is set the which means of phrases. even if evidently a critical obstacle of linguistics, the semantic behaviour of phrases has been unduly missed within the present literature, which has tended to stress sentential semantics and its relation to formal structures of common sense. during this textbook D. A. Cruse establishes in a principled and disciplined manner the descriptive and generalizable proof approximately lexical relatives that any formal thought of semantics must surround. one of the issues coated extensive are idiomaticity, lexical ambiguity, synonymy, hierarchical family equivalent to hyponymy and meronymy, and numerous varieties of oppositeness. Syntagmatic kin also are taken care of in a few aspect. The discussions are richly illustrated through examples drawn virtually fullyyt from English. even supposing a familiarity with conventional grammar is thought, readers without technical linguistic heritage will locate the exposition regularly available. All readers with an curiosity in semantics will locate during this unique textual content not just crucial history yet a stimulating new point of view at the box.
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Extra resources for Lexical Semantics
Are two principal strategies for proving that a collocationally item is a semantic constituent T h e first consists in demonstrating e element in question participates in the same semantic contrast third element as a proven semantic constituent For the purpose test a contrast with zero IS valid. Take the -en of oxen : this contrasts its own absence just like the -s of cows,and with a precisely parallel trudged past) = -s ( T h e cow- grazed here) @ s of cows can be shown to be a semantic constituent by the normal I 3.
Arthur has a chip, apparently, on his shoulder. After a shaky start, we took them to the cleaners. We took them, after a shaky gtart, to the cleaners.. T h e same is true of re-ordering. Many grammatical processes invol re-ordering of constituents are ruled out for semantic reasons, particu those whose semantic function is to highlight a specific semantic co tuent : thus, lVhut,Johnpulled was hts szster,~leg has nlo idiomatic readi whereas What %ha dzd was pull Izz,s szster's leg, which leaves the idi 'physically' intact, has.
Pourquoi avoir. u n chien et aboyer soi-rnCme? You're barking up the wrong tree. Ce n'est pas 2 cet arbre 11 que vous devez aboyer. I1 a change son cheval borgne pour un aveugle. He has changed his one-eyed horse for a blind one. I1 Ctait pr&th aller decrocher la lune pour elle. H e was ready to go and unhook the moon for her. estingly, a high proportion of dead metaphors have similar (although ften identical) dead metaphor equivalents: to put the cat among the pigeons. mettre le loup dans la bergerie.