By William R. Merrifield, Constance M. Nais, Calvin R. Rensch, Gillian L. Story
A laboratory guide (7th version) for introductory grammar classes.
Contains 298 datasets of difficulties taken from 117 languages spoken around the world. foreign Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols changed the Americanist symbols in a few datasets. a few datasets stay or were recast in orthographies utilized by examining populations of convinced languages the place phonological matters aren't in view.
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Additional info for Laboratory Manual for Morphology and Syntax, 7th Edition
Note that while IL treats the tense operators as logical operators, they are translated with the help of non-logical constants that obey certain non-logical axioms here. This means that we have relieved the logic of the task of providing the structure that is needed for the interpretation of tense, a job that we have transferred to the non-logical part of the system. As a result the logic is kept pure. A practical consequence of this move is a greater modularity: should we want to change our temporal ontology, replacing moments of time by intervals for example, we can simply change the axioms AX1, .
Tn Rt1 . . tn = N if t1 , . . , tn Rt1 . . tn = B if t1 , . . , tn ii. t1 = t2 = T if t1 = t2 , t1 = t2 = F if t1 = t2 ; iii. # = B; ⋆ = N; iv. ¬ϕ = − ϕ ; ϕ∧ψ = ϕ ∩ ψ ; ϕ = ψ = T if ϕ = ψ , ϕ = ψ = F if ϕ = ψ ; v. ∀x ϕ M,a = d∈D ϕ M,a[d/x]. ∈ I + (R) − I − (R), ∈ I − (R) − I + (R), ∈ Dn − (I + (R) ∪ I − (R)), ∈ I + (R) ∩ I − (R); This definition is cast in a form that agrees with the format of the truth definition for partial propositional logic given above and also with the format of the corresponding definition for partial type theory that will be given in the next chapter, but we could easily have chosen a more familiar form since, as the reader can easily verify, the following equivalences obtain.
T1 = t2 )† = t1 = t2 ; iii. (#)† = p+ ; (⋆)† = p− ; iv. (¬ϕ)† = ¬ ± ϕ† ; (ϕ ∧ ψ)† = ϕ† ∧ ψ † ; (ϕ = ψ)† = (ϕ† ↔ ψ † ) ∧ ±(ϕ† ↔ ψ † ); v. (∀x ϕ)† = ∀x ϕ† . The following lemma holds. Embedding Lemma. ) I2 (R+ ) = I + (R) and I2 (R− ) = Dn − I − (R) for all n-ary relation symbols R. Then the following two equivalences hold for each assignment a : M4 |= ϕ[a] iff M2 |= ϕ† [a] M4 =| ϕ[a] iff M2 |= ¬ ± ϕ† [a]. The proof of this lemma is a straightforward induction on the complexity of ϕ which we leave to the reader.