By Carlo Agostoni; Oscar Brunser
Content material: Breastfeeding and complementary feeding of kids as much as 2 years of age / K.H. Brown -- Does breastfeeding safeguard from progress acceleration and later weight problems? / A. Singhal -- Later results of breastfeeding perform: the proof / D. Turck -- conventional meals vs. synthetic child meals / E.L. Ferguson, N. Darmon -- capability contaminants within the meals chain: id, prevention and factor administration / F.P. Scanlan -- The microbiological threat / L. Morelli -- Cereal fortification courses in constructing international locations / S. Bulusu ... [et al.] -- Processed baby cereals as autos of practical elements / M. Domelléf, C. West -- useful constituents within the complementary feeding interval and long term results / C. Agostoni, E. Riva, M. Giovannini -- The effect of gluten: weaning innovations for fit young ones and kids in danger for celiac affliction / S. Guandalini -- Allergic babies: development and implications whereas on exclusion diets / okay. Laitinen, E. Isolauri -- Weaning babies with malnutrition, together with HIV / N.W. Solomons -- opposed results of cow's milk in babies / E.E. Ziegler -- entire cow's milk: why, what and while? / K.F. Michaelsen ... [et al.] -- Meat as an early complementary nutrition for babies: implications for macro- and micronutrient intakes / N.F. Krebs -- practical fermented milk items / O. Brunser, M. Gotteland, S. Cruchet
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Additional resources for Issues in complementary feeding
85) (table 1). Obesity was defined as a BMI above the 90th, 95th or 97th percentile and the analysis was confined to studies that had adjusted for a least three of several confounding or interacting factors (birth weight, parental overweight, parental smoking, dietary factors, physical activity and socioeconomic status). Age, definition of breastfeeding, or the number of confounding factors adjusted for did not affect these findings and there was no evidence of publication bias. However, there was evidence from four studies of an inverse and dose-dependent effect of duration of breastfeeding on later obesity prevalence.
8 points higher among normal birth weight and low birth weight infants, respectively; infants breastfed for 12–18 vs. Ͻ6 months). 36 Later Effects of Breastfeeding Practice 12 Breast Formula 11 Brain cortex DHA (wt%) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 0 10 20 30 40 50 Age at death (weeks) Fig. 1. Brain cortex docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plotted against age at death in infants undergoing postmortem examinations as a result of sudden death. 02, NS, n ϭ 20) are shown. From Makrides et al. . Little is known about the effects of breastfeeding in adulthood.
An increasing duration of breastfeeding was accompanied by an increase in cognitive development. A specific role of breast milk is suggested by the randomized controlled trial of Lucas et al. 5- to 8-year-old children born preterm who had received breast milk via a nasogastric tube. The benefits of breast milk may be related to its high content in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6(n-3)) that plays an important role in brain development. Breastfed infants undergoing postmortem examination because of sudden death had a greater proportion of DHA in their brain cortex relative to those fed formula (fig.