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By Peter J. Chelkowski, Robert J. Pranger

Scholars from the USA, Canada, Europe, and the center East mix their skills and services to honor George Lenczowski, whose experiences of the center East over generations have made him a greatest professional on modern affairs during this so much unstable and intricate region.

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Extra resources for Ideology and Power in the Middle East: Studies in Honor of George Lenczowski

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Justice was doing that which was the accepted norm. History was seen as cyclical in its movement, and regeneration meant essentially beginning the cycle anew. Thus, Khosrow Anushiravan, one of the most powerful Sasanian kings, would remain the epitome of justice even though he slaughtered the Mazdakis by resorting to what by modern standards are patently dishonorable methods. He had brought the cycle of history back onto the right path by ridding the world of nefarious and antitraditional influences.

During the years that had elapsed between the coup d'etat and his ascent to the throne, he had assured the integrity of the nation and established internal security by quelling a number of tribal revolts and revolutionary uprisings in various parts of the country. During the next sixteen years, before he was forced to leave Iran in 1941 under pressure from the Allied Occupation Forces, lle not only reigned but also ruled over the country with an iron lland. The paraphernalia of constitutional government remained intact, but no one doubted that supreme power lay with the king.

20 The constitution's main objective was to assert the popular sovereignty of Iranians, but at the same time it had to take into account the realities of Iranian history and culture. While it was essentially borrowed from French and Belgian prototypes, it also represented the two basic Iranian institutions, the monarchy and Shiism. The shah remained the head of state, and was also recognized as commander in chief of the armed forces, head of the executive branch, and a partner in legislation. As head of state and symbol of the majesty of the nation, his person was pronounced inviolate and inviolable.

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