By Steven Runciman
Sir Steven Runciman's 3 quantity A background of the Crusades, one of many nice classics of English old writing, is now being reissued. during this ultimate quantity, Runciman examines the revival of the Frankish country on the time of the 3rd campaign until eventually its cave in a century later. The interwoven issues of the ebook comprise: Christiandom, the alternative of the classy Ayubites by way of the fewer sympathetic Mameluks as chief of the Moslem international, and the arrival of the Mongols. He contains a bankruptcy on structure and the humanities, and an epilogue at the final manifestations of the Crusading spirit.
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Additional resources for History of Crusades Vol 3, Kingdom of Acre and Later Crusades
189/749–750) and Abu Yusuf (d. 192/798), who have preserved Abu Hanifa’s doctrines and opinions in their works. From these works it becomes apparent that Abu Hanifa’s legal thought was based to a considerable degree on his personal opinions (ra’y) and that his conclusions were derived through legal reasoning (qiyas). In his theology, Abu Hanifa showed concern for maintaining the unity and harmony of the Muslim community; his time was racked with communal strife, and so he sought a middle ground between extremes.
Abd al-Latif al-Bagdadi’s Bearbeitung von Buch Lambda der Aristotelischen Metaphysik (Kitab ma ba’d al-Tabi’a, Maqalat Lam). Wiesbaden, 1976. ———, ed and comm. ‘‘Neue Materialien zur Arabischen Tradition der Beiden Ersten Metaphysik-Buecher’’ (Kitab ma ba‘d al-tabi‘a, maqalat alif). Welt des Islams XVIII (1978): 84–100. , ed. and trans. Der Diabetestraktat. Bonn, 1971. A. E. Videan, eds. and trans. The Eastern Key (Kitab al-Ifada wa-l-i’Tibar). London, 1965. Further Reading Richter-Bernburg, Lutz.
With Abu ’l-Fadl’s death, Akbar lost a close friend and supporter. SAJJAD H. RIZVI See also Akbar; Illuminationism; Mughals; Sufism; Shi‘ism 9 ABU ’L-FADL ‘ALLAMI (1551–1602) Further Reading Haider, Mansura, trans. Mukatabat-i ‘Allam, (Insha’-i Abu’l-Fazl), 2 vols. New Delhi: Munshira Manoharlal, 1998–2000. Jinarajadasa, C. Abul-Fazl and Akbar. Madras: Theosophical Publishing House, 1934. A. The Socio-Religious Outlook of Abu’l-Fazl. Aligarh: University Press, 1972. A. Religious and Intellectual History of the Muslims in Akbar’s Reign.