By Anthony J. Pansini
Written via a extremely popular energy specialist, this finished handbook covers in complete aspect all features of electrical strength distribution platforms, either as they exist this present day and as they're evolving towards the long run. a brand new bankruptcy examines the influence of the emergence of cogeneration and dispensed new release at the energy distribution community. subject matters comprise an outline of the method of electrical energy transmission and distribution, an intensive dialogue of every component to the approach - conductor helps, insulators and conductors, line gear, substations, distribution circuits and extra - in addition to either overhead and underground building issues. advancements in either fabrics and techniques of energy distribution also are explored, together with the craze towards sluggish alternative of heavier porcelain insulators with lighter polymer ones. The complicated facets of electrical strength distribution are defined in easy-to-understand, non-technical language.
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Additional info for Guide To Electrical Power Distribution Systems
46 Electrical Power Distribution Systems Aluminum and ACSR Conductors Aluminum is used because of its light weight as illustrated in Figure 3-12, which is less than one third that of copper. It is only 60 to 80 percent as good a conductor as copper and only half as strong as copper. For these reasons it is hardly ever used alone, except for short distribution spans. Usually the aluminum wires are stranded on a core of steel wire. Such steel reinforced aluminum wire has great strength for the weight of the conductor and is especially suitable for long spans.
The forces exerted on a line because of ice and wind will depend on climatic conditions, which vary in different parts of the country (see Figure 2-7). , ft2 22 Table 2-2b. RA. Effective projected area, in square feet of transformers, capacitors, streetlight fixtures, and other permanently attached items which are subject to wind loads. Concrete strength This is a reference to the compressive strength of the concrete in pounds per square inch as measured by testing representative samples 28 days after casting.
However, where very cheap construction is needed, steel offers an economic advantage. Because steel wire is three to five times as strong as copper, it permits longer spans and requires fewer supports. However, steel is only about one tenth as good a conductor as copper and it rusts rapidly [see Figure 3-13(a)]. This rusting tendency can be counteracted (so that steel wire will last longer) by galvanizing, that is, by the application of a coat of zinc to the surface. Copperweld or Alumoweld Conductors The main disadvantages of steel are a lack of durability and con- (a) (b) Figure 3-11 (a).