By Eve Sweetser
This publication deals a brand new method of the research of the a number of meanings of English modals, conjunctions, conditionals, and belief verbs. even if such ambiguities can't simply be accounted for via feature-analyses of be aware that means, Eve Sweetser's argument exhibits that they are often analyzed either conveniently and systematically. that means relationships quite often can't be understood independently of human cognitive constitution, together with the metaphorical and cultural elements of that constitution. Sweetser exhibits that either lexical polysemy and pragmatic ambiguity are formed via our metaphorical people knowing of epistemic tactics and of speech interplay. related regularities might be proven to constitution the distinction between root, epistemic and speech act makes use of of modal verbs, a number of makes use of of conjunctions and conditionals, and likely procedures of ancient swap saw in Indo-European languages. given that polysemy is usually the intermediate step in semantic switch, a similar regularities observable in polysemy could be prolonged to an research of semantic swap.
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Extra info for From etymology to pragmatics: metaphorical and cultural aspects of semantic structure
Given intra-paradigmatic coherence, this is exactly the opposite of what the hypothesis under discussion might be taken to predict. In order to counter this objection one would have to show that the formal inventory of the Aorist paradigm, the Perfect paradigm or both does not prove to be paradigmatically coherent. In fact, the findings of Hoffmann (1967) could be taken as an indication that there is some degree of paradigmatic consistency in the Early Vedic non-indicative modal system. He notes that the Aorist and Present Injunctive are used in fundamentally different manners 24 introduction in prohibitive sentences.
7) a. htm situations, times, worlds and contexts 35 b. Despite an outpouring of protest from around the world, the state of Texas executed Karla Faye Tucker on February 3 (Internet)4 c. A short time ago, the State of Texas killed Terry Lee Hankins (Internet)5 A straightforward way of accounting for this divergence would be to assume that the relevant lexical entailment, which may be labeled the ‘volitional subject’ feature, is privative. This would imply that verbs which are inherently associated with this entailment demand a volitional subject argument, whereas verbs which are not inherently associated with this entailment are underspecified with regard to this feature.
1 below contains a classification of some recurrent verb types according to these semantic features. Note that this does not represent an exhaustive classification of possible verb types (cf. htm For instance, the table does not include so-called degree achievements like cool, widen etc. (cf. Dowty 1979: 88–90, Hay et al. 1999). 10 situations, times, worlds and contexts 41 So far we have isolated a limited set of lexical entailments which may be taken to systematically contribute to aspectual meaning.