By Ye J., Cundiff S.T.
This booklet offers an introductory description of mode-locked lasers, the relationship among time and frequency descriptions in their output and the actual origins of the electrical box dynamics, including an outline of functions of femtosecond comb know-how. person chapters cross into extra aspect on mode-locked laser improvement, spectral broadening in microstructure fiber, optical parametric amplification, optical frequency metrology, optical atomic clocks, ultrasensitive sensors, carrier-envelope section dynamics, excessive box ionization of atoms and new release of attosecond high-harmonic radiation.
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Extra info for Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb Technology: Principle, Operation and Applications
3 Optical frequency synthesizer As will be discussed in Section 4, a future goal of ultrafast technology is to demonstrate arbitrary pulse synthesis in the time domain, including the capability of phase-coherent stitching of distinct optical bandwidths. This time-domain capability would complement the goal of constructing an optical frequency synthesizer that allows access in the frequency domain to any optical-spectral feature with a well-defined optical carrier wave. Such a capability would greatly simplify precision-laser spectroscopy.
This technique also yields additional spectral-phase information. For single-shot experiments, a variation of the spectral-interferometry technique that involves interference between the fundamental and its second harmonic spectra, which overlap if the fundamental optical bandwidth exceeds one octave, becomes the most effective approach to measuring . Although cross-correlation measurements can demonstrate some degree of phase coherence, they are actually quite insensitive to phase fluctuation because they measure the change between pulses that are separated by only a few round-trip times because of the practical size limitation of the interferometer.
This is accomplished by using self-phase modulation, which is based on a temporal variation in the index of refraction because of a combination of a short optical pulse and an intensity-dependent index of refraction . The broadening can be achieved outside the laser cavity by using optical fiber or internally by creating coincident secondary time and space foci . The latter technique requires carefully designed mirrors  and is challenging to implement; therefore the former is significantly more common.