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By Maurizio Bach

Faschismus ist ein generelles Phänomen, das jedoch nur in Italien und Deutschland zur vollen Entfaltung kam. Das wird in diesem Band sowohl in typologischer als auch in empirisch-vergleichender Perspektive dargelegt. Gezeigt werden soll, welchen Beitrag die Herrschaftssoziologie Max Webers zur Deutung und Erklärung des Faschismus leisten kann. Schwerpunkte liegen auf dem Verhältnis von Vergemeinschaftung und Vergesellschaftung in der Bewegungsphase sowie der Veralltäglichung des aura in der Regimephase, die in Italien zu einer Stabilisierung bürokratisch-zentralistischer Strukturen führte, in Deutschland dagegen eine De-Institutionalisierung der staatlichen Ordnung bewirkte.

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Extra info for Faschismus als Bewegung und Regime: Italien und Deutschland im Vergleich

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Wildvang 2008 (wie Anm. 112), S. 50 ff. 114 Vgl. Mary Gibson: Biology or Environment? ): Italy’s Southern Question. Orientalism in One Country, Oxford 1998, S. 99-115; Marco Nese: Soziologie und Positivismus im präfaschistischen Italien 1870 – 1922. Denkverfassung und Ideologie einer gegenaufklärerischen Humanwissenschaft, Basel 1993, S. ): Nel nome della razza. Il razzismo nella storia d’Italia 1870-1945, 2. , Bologna 2000, S. 247-264; Aaron Gillette: Racial Theories in Fascist Italy, London und New York 2002.

51), S. , S. 83). Zu den ras und rassini, den Lokalmatadoren des Provinzfaschismus, vgl. Roger Engelmann: Regionalismus und Zentralismus in der faschistischen Bewegung Italiens, in: Horst Möller u. a. ): Nationalsozialismus in der Region. Beiträge zur regionalen und lokalen Forschung im internationalen Vergleich, München 1996, S. 305312, 309 f. 33 weit das Charisma in der Politik nicht überhaupt der „Kastrierung“ durch den Parteibetrieb oder dem „langsamen Erstickungstode unter der Wucht der materiellen Interessen“ erliegt,63 wird es, Weber zufolge, durch den Prozess „aktiver Massendemokratisierung“ erfasst und dabei in doppelter Hinsicht umgedeutet.

Wie im Märchenbuch: ganz allein…”. Im Gespräch mit Hans Gerth, in: Die Zerstörung einer Zukunft. Gespräche mit emigrierten Sozialwissenschaftlern. Aufgezeichnet von Mathias Greffrath, Reinbek 1979, S. 59-96, 81 f. 80 Armin Nolzen: Charismatic Legitimation and Bureaucratic Rule: The NSDAP in the Third Reich, 1933-1945, in: German History 23, 2005, S. 494-518, 514. , S. 516), vgl. die weiter unten angestellten Überlegungen (VIII). Charismatische Herrschaft bedeutet nur ein Zurücktreten der sachlichen Motive hinter den persönlichen, nicht deren Abwesenheit.

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