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By R. C. Bolles, M. D. Beecher

First released in 1987. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa corporation.

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Haplotype networks of COI data for (a) the shallow-water shrimp Chorismus antarcticus and (b) the deep-water shrimp Nematocarcinus lanceopes. Colours correspond to sampling locality and the number of haplotypes sampled are indicated by the colourless circles. Numbers at the coloured circles indicate the haplotype code number. , 2010). 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Separation of S. ) in Stereotydeus mollis complex Kelp Kelp invade Antarctic after LGM Foraminifera Divergence of Antarctic & Arctic lineages of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma Divergence of E.

In order to place this into perspective a longer historical view is required. , 2001). , 2001, 2003). On land, the changes in climate and associated glaciations have eradicated almost all the flora and fauna that characterized the Early Cenozoic of Antarctica, driving the evolution of the polar marine and terrestrial biota we observe today (Clarke & Crame, 1989, 1992). , 2010; Rogers, this volume). , 2010). Cenozoicclimate change has also forced key evolutionary adaptations within species, including changes in morphology, physiology and at the molecular level (Rogers, this volume) allowing species to live at low temperatures.

C. T. 2009 Warming of the Antarctic ice-sheet surface since the 1957 International Geophysical Year. Nature 457, 459–462. , Lachlan-Cope, T. A. & Iagovkina, S. 2005 Antarctic climate change during the last 50 years. Int. J. Climatol. 25, 279–294. 1130. G. 2006 Recent trends in melting conditions on the Antarctic Peninsula and their implications for icesheet mass balance and sea level. Arctic Alpine Res. 9 38, 147–152. CO;2. G. M. 1996 Recent atmospheric warming and retreat of ice shelves on theAntarctic Peninsula.

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