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By Johan van Benthem

Recent advancements within the semantics of normal language appear to bring about a real synthesis of rules from linguistics and good judgment, generating novel techniques and questions of curiosity to either father or mother disciplines. This booklet is a set of essays on such new themes, that have arisen during the last few years. Taking a large view, advancements in formal semantics over the last decade may be obvious as follows. initially stands Montague's pioneering paintings, exhibiting how a rigorous semantics will be given for entire fragments of ordinary language by means of making a compatible healthy among syntactic different types and semantic kinds. This very company already dispelled entrenched prejudices in regards to the separation of linguistics and good judgment. Having visible the sunshine, besides the fact that, there isn't any cause in any respect to stay to the letter of Montague's proposals, that are usually arguable. hence, then, many advancements were made upon nearly each element of the firm. extra subtle grammars were inserted (lately, lexical-functional grammar and generalized word constitution grammar), extra delicate version buildings were constructed (lately, 'partial' instead of 'total' of their com­ position), or even the mechanism of interpretation itself will be fine-tuned extra delicately, utilizing quite a few types of 'representations' mediating among linguistic goods and semantic truth. as well as some of these refinements of the semantic layout, descriptive assurance has prolonged considerably.

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The reason is that the necessary 'duplication' of A to A * may not be possible. For, in case the proper name Mary denotes an object in A - B, it cannot also denote something in A * - B. And in fact, if we could construe certain cases of x's XY as implying that x is in X, but not in Y, then there would be an asymmetric determiner after all. ) Still, whether by immediate transfer or through suitable generalization, there are good prospects for a general logical theory of determiners. Even so, this direction of research may be misguided.

Nevertheless, they also suggest an important distinction to be made. There is a way of justifying the rejected account after all. Like singular NP's, plural NP's can have both 'general' and 'specific' (or 'referential') uses. In the singular case, one has such well-known anaphoric differences as that between 'A girl came in, and she ... ' versus the unacceptable 'Every girl came in, and she . '. In the plural case, there is a similar distinction, between the admissible 'Some girls came in, and they .

There must be some deep truth here about the semantic flora. 4. FURTHER INTUITIONS OF LOGICALITY The three postulates QUANT, CONS, EXT, together with VAR, delimit an important, but still rather heterogeneous class of generalized quantifiers. It contains many of the usual first-order quantifiers, but also some highly artificial second-order ones. Can one single out a more homogeneous group? Indeed, there are various further intuitions concerning quantifiers (or logical constants in general) that may be 32 CHAPTER 2 brought to light.

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