By Marios Philippides
Greek and English textual content.
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Extra info for Emperors, Patriarchs, and Sultans of Constantinople, 1373-1513: An Anonymous Greek Chronicle of the Sixteenth Century
For he was still pretty much an unknown quantity, and his state’s proven record of aloofness from earlier Greek resistance to Macedon and collaboration with Persia will not have encouraged those Greeks who regarded both Persia and Macedon as equally enemies of Greek freedom. Such Greeks were to be found especially in democratic Athens, which was further constrained from overt antiMacedonian action by the fact that Alexander was in effect holding hostage up to 4,000 Athenian citizens. In the event, therefore, despite rumours of support from north of the Isthmus, Agis’ official Greek allies turned out to be exclusively Peloponnesian.
Finally, RESISTANCE TO MACEDON: THE REVOLT OF AGIS III 23 there was the fact that the revolt was led by Athens, which had abstained from Agis’ war, and supported by Sparta’s sworn enemies Messene and Argos. 23 Anyway, whatever the reasons, Sparta stood idly by as Athens and her more than twenty Greek allies fought a genuinely ‘Hellenic War’ against Macedon. For Macedon’s character as imperial suzerain had become ever clearer since Alexander cashiered all Greek troops in 330, and its unconcern for the freedom and independence of the Greek cities had prompted orders not only for Alexander’s deification but, yet more oppressively illegal, the restoration of all exiles in 324.
By pursuing a policy of armed neutrality, supporting now one or other Greek state or coalition, now one or another Macedonian dynast, this federal state had become increasingly prominent since the late fourth century. 10 Then in about 281 Areus made his début, so far as the sources are concerned, at the head not merely of a Spartan and mercenary army but of an army which for the first time since Agis’ war of 331 represented something that could be called a Spartan alliance. This has been hailed hyperbolically as a re-creation of the Peloponnesian League alliance that had melted away in the mid-360s.