By Mohammadreza Hojat
Human beings, despite age, intercourse, or country of future health, are designed via evolution to shape significant interpersonal relationships via verbal and nonverbal communique. The topic that empathic human connections are useful to the physique and brain underlies all 12 chapters of this publication, within which empathy is considered from a multidisciplinary viewpoint that comes with evolutionary biology; neuropsychology; scientific, social, developmental, and academic psychology; and well-being care supply and schooling.
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Additional resources for Empathy in Patient Care: Antecedents, Development, Measurement, and Outcomes
Disconnected people lack social skills and are similar to people with deficient empathic capacity. , 2005b), we found that scores on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (see Chapter 7) were negatively correlated with scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 2004) but were positively correlated with sociability scores on the Extraversion subscale of the Zuckerman–Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (Zuckerman, 2002). , self-esteem, extraversion) (Hojat, 1982a, 1982b, 1983; Shapurian & Hojat, 1985).
We are, according to Larson (1993) “pre-wired” to be connected by evolutionary design for the sake of survival. Our survival depends on our ability to understand others and skills to communicate our understanding. Social relationships provide opportunities for empathic engagement, which in turn reinforces human connections, a cycle that has always been in motion in the evolution of humankind. In 17 Empathy in Patient Care the often-cited list of basic needs proposed by psychologist Henry Murray (1938), the need for “affiliation” as well as the needs for “understanding” and “succorance” (to be gratified by being understood) are listed among the human being’s basic psychosocial needs.
Although Titchener (1915) used the term empathy to convey “understanding” of other human beings, Southard (1918) was the first to describe the significance of empathy in the relationship between a clinician and a patient for facilitating diagnostic outcomes. Thereafter, American social and behavioral scientists have often used the concept of empathy in relation to the psychotherapeutic or counseling relationship and in the discussion of prosocial behavior and altruism (Batson & Coke, 1981; Carkhuff, 1969; Davis, 1994; Eisenberg & Strayer, 1987b; Feshbach, 1989; Feudtner, Christakis, & Christakis, 1994; Hoffman, 1981; Ickes, 1997; Stotland, Mathews, Sherman, Hansson, & Richardson, 1978).