By Allen H.S.
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Extra info for Electrons and Waves
3 Optical frequency synthesizer As will be discussed in Section 4, a future goal of ultrafast technology is to demonstrate arbitrary pulse synthesis in the time domain, including the capability of phase-coherent stitching of distinct optical bandwidths. This time-domain capability would complement the goal of constructing an optical frequency synthesizer that allows access in the frequency domain to any optical-spectral feature with a well-defined optical carrier wave. Such a capability would greatly simplify precision-laser spectroscopy.
This technique also yields additional spectral-phase information. For single-shot experiments, a variation of the spectral-interferometry technique that involves interference between the fundamental and its second harmonic spectra, which overlap if the fundamental optical bandwidth exceeds one octave, becomes the most effective approach to measuring . Although cross-correlation measurements can demonstrate some degree of phase coherence, they are actually quite insensitive to phase fluctuation because they measure the change between pulses that are separated by only a few round-trip times because of the practical size limitation of the interferometer.
This is accomplished by using self-phase modulation, which is based on a temporal variation in the index of refraction because of a combination of a short optical pulse and an intensity-dependent index of refraction . The broadening can be achieved outside the laser cavity by using optical fiber or internally by creating coincident secondary time and space foci . The latter technique requires carefully designed mirrors  and is challenging to implement; therefore the former is significantly more common.