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By Ivan Švancara

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Last but not least and on the occasion of debuting introduction of this category, one can present also some special studies, in which the role of modifier has been undertaken entirely or partially by: (i) daily light (to initiate a photoreaction [99] or for functioning of a solar cell [100]), (ii) UV-irradiation (to activate the surface of solidified CP-SPE [290]), (iii) elevated temperature (heating; in order to enhance interactions with DNA [291–293], diffusion transport of the analyte(s) [294], or mass transfer in the solution as such [295,296]), (iv) a short “shock” freezing (as a way of drying prior to preparing carbon paste in batches and with desired reproducibility [297]), (v) ultrasound (to activate the CPE surface by physical “erosion” [188]), and—finally—(vi) magnetic field (to reorient 26 Electroanalysis with Carbon Paste Electrodes “by force” some macromolecules such as DNA for their easier oxidation [298,299], to increase again the mass transport [300], or to accomplish an immunoassay [301–303]).

Occasionally, some of these compounds have been used again in later electroanalytically oriented measurements, such as hexadecane [60,214,215] or selected items of shorter chain aliphatic hydrocarbons (C10 –C14; [216]). 3 Silicone Oils and Greases The binders of this kind belong among polymerized siloxanes with organic side chains. If the substance of interest is still being fluid, it is usually called silicone oil (SO), whereas a thicker and already gelatin-like derivative is silicone grease (SG).

1 Microstructure of two typical spectroscopic graphite powders. 2 Other specification: (1) spectral coal (series “X-69-257”; Ringsdorff Werke, Bonn, Germany) and (2) gear lubricant (Maziva Tyn, Týn nad Vltavou, Czech Republic). Scanning electron microscope (SEM, model “JSM-5500LV”; JEOL, Tokyo, Japan), ­magnification used: 1:3000. ) Note: Some authors had tried to solve the problems associated with the presence of oxygen in graphite powder by its pretreatment with the aid of special procedures.

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