By Paolo Arena
The publication bargains with a brand new option to conceive bio-robotics, linking this topic to the speculation of nonlinear dynamical platforms and analog/logic circuits, like mobile Nonlinear Networks and spiking networks. the subject is handled as a sequence of classes, explaining the main points of the several points, from Neurobiology to Electronics, to Robotics, together with particular sensory and sensorymotor method modelling and implementation through the use of spiking networks. in addition, it's defined how bio-robots can be utilized to version organic behaviours.
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Additional resources for Dynamical Systems, Wave-Based Computation and Neuro-Inspired Robots (CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences)
Activity of group 7 interneuron before extraction (I1,J1) and after extraction (12, J2) from ganglion. J3. The effect produced by injection of various direct currents in the isolated group 7 interneuron. K. A single action potential can be evoked on rebound after injection of a pulse of hyperpolarizing current. L. Contribution of the rebound property in of generator interneurons to rhythm generation. In the absence of rhythmic activity in the pedal ganglia, the CPG can be triggered by a single pulse of hyperpolarizing current injected into interneuron 7.
This is illustrated for the locomotor system of Clione. An excitatory command neuron Cr-SA, when activated by current injection, causes depolarisation of swim interneurons and activation of the locomotor CPG (see Figure 2A-C). An inhibitory effect of the command neuron I shown in Figure 2D for a neuron P1-W2. Induced activity in P1-W2 results in a complete inhibition of the locomotory rhythm. Command neurons can aflPect not only the rhythm generator but also the output stage of the CPG, and even the muscles of the locomotor organs.
In fact, among the various motion types, while wheels are nowadays still the most used way to realize motion in robots for their clear advantages with respect to the load carrying efficiency, legs are more attractive than wheels because they allow to reach places where only humans or animals on foot can go. This requires great adaptability to uneven or dangerous terrains. The problem of coordinating and controlling legs is also challenging and often researchers are helped from neurobiological studies on animal neuromotor systems, since even the simplest animals are able to move on legs and balance in a way that nowadays is challenging for artificial machines.