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By R. Pinkney

An exam of the evolution of democracy in Ghana and Tanzania, following lengthy classes of single-party and armed forces rule, and appears on the present and strength hindrances to democratic improvement. After discussing the character of democracy, the writer is going directly to reflect on the stipulations that have made the emergence of multi-party politics attainable in Ghana and Tanzania. The e-book appears to be like on the stability of forces among governments and campaigners for pluralist democracy, and on the results that emerged.

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Ankrah, Gen Africa) 1966-9; PP (Busia) 1969-72 NRC/SMC (Gen. Acheampong, Gen. Akuffo) 1972-79. PNP (Limann) 1979-81 AFRC (Fit. Lt. Rawlings) 1979. PFP (Owusu) 1979-81. PNDC (Fit. Lt. Rawlings) 1981-92. NCP (Agyekum) 1992-(Plus other extra-parliamen tary parties) NDC (Rawlings) 1992- NPP (Boahen) 1992- ideological strands, a n d call t h e m state socialism, liberalism a n d populism. We omit conservatism since virtually all political tendencies claim to believe in 'development', with all its implications for social c h a n g e a n d state intervention.

T h e g o v e r n m e n t was thus already in a weak political position at a time w h e n world economic conditions were t u r n i n g against G h a n a . 1 million cedis by 1972 (Austin 1976: 7), a n d the terms of trade deteriorated sharply after 1971 (Kraus in Rothchild 1991: 127). T h e g o v e r n m e n t was forced to devalue the cedi, thus creating h a r d s h i p a m o n g the working population, a n d to curtail some 40 Democracy and Dictatorship in Ghana and Tanzania of the amenities previously enjoyed by army officers.

One can argue about whether there had ever been a genuine attempt to establish socialist state, and indeed about what the term means, but the years before 1966 were distinctive in the extent to which state control over the economy was imposed, and to which a single party claimed a monopoly of the truth and a right (imperfectly exercised in practice) to penetrate all sections of society. The experiment worked only patchily in relatively prosperous years, and had little chance of survival once the economic tide turned.

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