By A.V. Gheorghe, M. Masera, M. Weijnen, L.J. De Vries
Europe witnessed within the final years a few major strength contingencies. a few of them published the potentiality of monstrous effect at the welfare of society and caused urgent questions about the reliability of electrical strength structures. Society has included electrical energy as an inherent part, crucial for reaching the anticipated point of caliber of existence. consequently, any impingement at the continuity of the electrical energy carrier will be capable of misery society as an entire, affecting participants, social and financial actions, different infrastructures and crucial govt features. it'd be attainable to hypothesize that during severe occasions this may even disappointed nationwide protection. This publication explores the aptitude hazards and vulnerabilities of the eu electrical energy infrastructure, different infrastructures and our society as entire more and more depend upon. The paintings used to be initiated via the necessity to make sure the aptitude results of the continuing industry and technical transformation of the infrastructure, that is essentially altering its operation and function. the ultimate objective is to set the foundation for a suitable business and political European-wide reaction to the danger demanding situations.
Read or Download Critical Infrastructures at Risk : Securing the European Electric Power System (Topics in Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality) (Topics in Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality) PDF
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Extra info for Critical Infrastructures at Risk : Securing the European Electric Power System (Topics in Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality) (Topics in Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality)
In the initial development stage, in the early 1900’s, the provision of the new service was only affordable for public authorities and a small number of wealthy consumers. After the technical feasibility and economic viability had been proven extensively, public authorities either took over from private firms, or established rules that enabled them to directly interfere with the planning, management and operation of the systems. Economies of scale by technological innovations and a growing sense of public utility value were the main drivers to implement interlocal connections and to expand the networks to rural areas.
There are also doubts regarding the ability of current and planned generation plants to meet demand. As an example, the growing reliance on gas-fired plants will face the need to find alternative sources when gas supplies would become scarce. In addition the availability of renewable sources is already known to be erratic, for instance the randomness of sunshine and wind. 1 shows the complexity and interdependencies of the current electricity infrastructure. The industrial and market actors that compose the infrastructure are shown.
It will be evident that the social network has become much more complex with the larger number and diversity of actors, each of them with their own agenda. Options to steer the development of the infrastructure have changed dramatically. Whereas the old situation allowed the public authorities to directly intervene in the development of the system, investment signals for capacity expansion and innovation in generation— but not in networks—are established through market forces. The interaction between the physical and the social subsystem of a critical infrastructure is now, more than ever, shaped by legislation and regulation, especially by sector-specific regulation (ex ante) and by competition law (ex post).