Download Control of Posture and Locomotion by R. Granit (auth.), R. B. Stein, K. G. Pearson, R. S. Smith, PDF

By R. Granit (auth.), R. B. Stein, K. G. Pearson, R. S. Smith, J. B. Redford (eds.)

R. B. Stein division of body structure, college of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada The impetus for this quantity and the convention that gave upward push to it was once the sensation that experiences on motor keep an eye on had reached a turning element. in recent times, reports on motor devices and muscle receptors became more and more targeted. makes an attempt to combine those stories into quantitative types for the spinal regulate of posture have seemed and initial makes an attempt were made to incorporate the main direct supraspinal pathways into those versions (see for instance the chapters by way of Nashner and Melvill Jones et al. during this volume). hence, we felt that the time was once ripe to summarize those advancements in a fashion that can be helpful not just to uncomplicated scientific scientists, but in addition to clinicians facing issues of motor keep an eye on, and to bioengineers trying to construct units to aid or substitute basic regulate. during the last few years, computing device equipment have additionally made attainable more and more special experiences of mammalian locomotion, and better physiological and pharmacological reviews have seemed. There appears to be like virtually common contract now that the styles for locomotion are generated within the spinal twine, and they will be generated with little, if any, phasic sensory details (see chapters by means of Grillner and Miller et al. ). This concludes a protracted controversy on no matter if chains of reflexes or imperative circuits generate stepping styles. the character of the development turbines in mammals is still imprecise, yet invertebrate reports on locomotion have lately made extraordinary advances.

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Extra resources for Control of Posture and Locomotion

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There is a clear correlation between unit type and the peak amplitude of the composite monosynaptic EPSP produced by stimulation of group Ia aff erents in the muscle nerve to which the recorded unit belongs (the homonymous nerve). As shown in the histograms in Fig. 1, the homonymous Ia EPSP is largest on the average in type S units, somewhat smaller in FR units, still smaller in U units, and finally considerably smaller in type FF units. These new results permit an important conclusion to be drawn from a previous study of firing patterns of F and S motor units in the decerebrate cat (Burke, 1968b), in which it was shown that some F units could be activated by MG stretch (thus participating in the classical stretch reflex).

The relatively powerful effects produced by this system of MOTOR UNITS IN CAT MUSCLE 5 DO" Su 211 lhr. ' 50 Ty p e S un i! "• '". -\ e o ! cr: 0..

One of these regularities is somatotopic projection - neighbouring presynaptic cells connect with neighbouring postsynaptic cells. A different assumption, often held by spinal cord researchers, is that large numbers of nerve cells are grouped into different "species" (e. g. the motoneurones innervating a single muscle), and that all members of a species have similar connections. ) and species (species refers to cells whose connections are specific for the muscle in whose control pathway they find themselves, e.

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