By Gerald Kutcher
Within the 1960s University of Cincinnati radiologist Eugene Saenger infamously carried out human experiments on sufferers with complex melanoma to check how overall physique radiation may perhaps deal with the ailment. yet, below agreement with the dept of protection, Saenger extensively utilized those self same sufferers as proxies for infantrymen to reply to questions on wrestle effectiveness on a nuclear battlefield. utilizing the Saenger case as a method to re-evaluate chilly struggle scientific trials, Contested medication examines the inherent tensions on the center of scientific experiences of the time. Emphasizing the deeply intertwined and at the same time supportive dating among melanoma treatment with radiation and armed forces medication, Gerald Kutcher explores post–World struggle II melanoma trials, the efforts of the govt to control medical ethics, and the $64000 position of army investigations within the improvement of an efficient remedy for adolescence leukemia. while so much histories of human experimentation pass judgement on examine akin to Saenger’s opposed to idealized practices, Contested drugs eschews such an process and considers why Saenger’s friends and later critics had rather a lot trouble achieving an unambiguous moral overview. Kutcher’s enticing research deals an method of scientific ethics and study imperatives that lays naked a few of the conflicts and tensions of the postwar interval.
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Additional resources for Contested Medicine: Cancer Research and the Military
68. , combined twenty tamoxofen trials with forty chemotherapy trials and concluded that tamoxofen reduced the odds of recurrence by one-ﬁfth in women over ﬁfty and that chemotherapy reduced the odds by one-fourth in women under ﬁfty (EBCT, “Effects of Adjuvant Tamoxofen,” 1681). 69. A consensus conference decision may be difﬁcult to reach if any of the parties believe that they have much to lose (DeVita, “Evolution of Therapeutic Research,” 910). 70. ” 71. Thompson, “Moral Economy,” 217. 2 The Production of Trustworthy Knowledge A refreshingly unstructured pronouncement emerged from some members of the French Academy of Political and Moral Sciences.
16. For example, during the war, Zubrod worked on clinical trials to treat malaria for the military. He recalled: “I learned lessons about how to organize clinical trials and those lessons served me well later on when I organized a group to cure leukemia” (quoted in Laszlo, Cure of Childhood Leukemia, 97). 17. , 100. 18. Freireich and Lemak, Milestones in Leukemia Research, 76. 19. As early as 1957, chemotherapy consumed half the NCI budget (Patterson, Dread Disease, 196). 20. DeVita, “Evolution of Therapeutic Research,” 908.
6. 35. Fisher, “Clinical Trials for Cancer,” 2613. For the early randomization procedures used in the United Kingdom, each new patient was assigned a number in sequence, and an envelope marked with that number was opened to determine the patient’s assigned treatment (Hill, “Clinical Trial” , 280). The meticulousness with which Fisher conducted the multicenter trials led him to drop a similar method in favor of centralized randomization since “the possibility exists that the contents of the envelope may become known before patient entry into the trial” (“Clinical Trials for Cancer,” 2613).