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The crystals will continue to grow until blocked by some process, such as steric hindrance by nearby crystals or adsorption of surface-active substances from the solution. The former is probably the dominant reason for growth termination in most cases. 2 Hydroxide Mechanism Nucleation of the chalcogenide is much simpler in this process, since a solid phase—the metal hydroxide (or other solid phase)—is already present and the process proceeds by a substitution reaction on that solid phase. In this case, the initial step in the deposition is adhesion of the hydroxide to the substrate.

Walls of the reaction vessel) introduces a degree of heterogeneity that facilitates nucleation. For this reason, depositions that proceed via the ion-by-ion process tend to occur mainly on the substrate or other surfaces, rather than involving a large amount of precipitate typical of the hydroxide mechanism. The surface can be considered a catalyst for the nucleation. As discussed in Chapter 1, the most important force involved in adhesion of the deposit to a substrate in general is the van der Waals force of attraction.

4 Resultant interaction energy between two particles with van der Waals attractive interactions and electron overlap repulsion interactions. solid. 42) Substituting Eq. 42) into Eq. 43) This relation is clearly very simplified, being based on a number of approximations, such as the validity of the use of the Hamaker constant at such close distances and the particle and surface being of the same material. Also, the relationship between surface force and van der Waals forces does not hold for many solids, in particular for metals where metallic bonding is important.

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