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By Korotchenkov, G. S.

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The sensors are often able to be calibrated and provide useful sensing performance, but understanding the molecular and chemical reaction basis for the signal is more difficult. Interestingly, the amperometric sensor signal will get smaller with the size of the electrode because of the decreasing rate of analyte reaction at the electrode surface, while the potentiometric sensor has no such dependence on geometry. This situation becomes most interesting in nanostructures, in which the thermodynamic potential can be characteristic of aggregates of atoms and different from a bulk system of components.

Physical Sorption Physical adsorption does not reduce or oxidize but rather increases the concentration of reacting adsorbates at the reaction interface sites. In this type of interaction, the analyte gas molecules can facilitate the reduction or oxidation of other gases, which are used as a reference or probe. A CO2 gas sensor took advantage of the reduction of oxygen in the air (Satyanarayana et al. 2008) and the reduction of the oxygen took place at the electrode surface and the solid electrolyte conducted CO32− ions.

14) 14  CHEMICAL SENSORS. 3. Biological Reaction A direct analysis is illustrated by the following enzymatic reaction, which is indeed one type of redox reaction catalyzed or mediated by enzymes. This type of reaction has great potential to be engineered into a sensor with very high selectivity. In an enzymatic gas sensor, formaldehyde could be analyzed as it was oxidized to produce reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) in the presence of formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH). The oxidation current of NADH was measured as the signal of the sensor (Mitsubayashi et al.

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