Download Chemical Lectures of H.T. Scheffer by Torbem Bergman, J. A. Schufle (auth.), Torbern Bergman PDF

By Torbem Bergman, J. A. Schufle (auth.), Torbern Bergman (eds.)

Torbern Bergman used to be one of many maximum chemists of the 18th century. He edited this choice of lectures in chemistry through H.T. Scheffer and released it in 1775. It was once most likely the 1st publication designed for use as a textbook for college sessions in chemistry. Bergman awarded the 1st of his successively more suitable Tables of optionally available sights during this booklet, a desk of the chemical parts which used to be one of many earliest makes an attempt to offer the entire chemical components and their homes in one desk. This desk preceded the trendy periodic desk of the weather through approximately a century. it truly is of foundation of this desk that Bergman is taken into account to be the daddy of actual chemistry.
one of many many discoveries defined during this e-book is Scheffer's `Pelican Experiment'. which disproved the transmutation of parts, and preceded by way of 20 years the same test performed via Antoine Lavoisier.
This ebook can be of curiosity to historians of technological know-how and chemists specifically. Scientists regularly and educators may also be to learn this booklet. it may be used as extra interpreting in heritage classes.

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Chemical Lectures of H.T. Scheffer

Torbern Bergman was once one of many maximum chemists of the 18th century. He edited this selection of lectures in chemistry through H. T. Scheffer and released it in 1775. It was once most likely the 1st booklet designed for use as a textbook for collage periods in chemistry. Bergman awarded the 1st of his successively superior Tables of optional sights during this booklet, a desk of the chemical parts which was once one of many earliest makes an attempt to give all of the chemical components and their homes in one desk.

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Note 2. Nowadays in England acid of vitriol is prepared with the least difficulty and cost from sulfur which. ]. is burned in a closed vessel. the acid fumes collected in water, and the dilute acid which is obtained is finally concentrated by distillation in which the watery part goes over first. Note 3. That phlogiston alone could make acid of vitriol dark is not likely, because carbon powder can be mixed with it without changing the color. But if some oil is mixed with it. the concentrated acid turns yellow or darkens immediately.

Litharge. or white lead. which should s t i l l be more closely examined. (d) By union with phlogiston. fuming spirit of vitriol is produced. (e) It is not made volatile except by the most intense heat. and is the most stable of all acids. Note. Water-free acid of urine is also completely stable to heat. (f) It is the strongest of all acids. ~ This statement has several exceptions. ], which also occurs to some extent with acid of saltpeter. See § 52, Note. (g) Also. to obtain its densest form. i t must be heated strongly to boiling.

CHAPTER II. About Acids half is commonly obtained. this acid is colored more and its separation less convenient. Testing the Strength o£ Aqua Fortis § 18. The more the water mixed with the acid. the weaker i t [the acid] i s . To £ind out how much acid is contained in a given amount [0£ aqua £ortis]. £ixed alkali is used. dissolved in 3 times as much water with boiling; to this is added little by l i t t l e the aqua £ortis until no more e££ervescence is observed, a£ter which the weights o£ the added alkali and the saturated aqua £ortis are taken equal.

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