By Eric W. Wolff (auth.), Eric W. Wolff, Roger C. Bales (eds.)
Polar ice cores have supplied great advances in our wisdom of earlier weather swap. in addition they comprise an archive of geochemical facts, that may definitely delineate the various forcing components that govern weather swap. notwithstanding, our skill to interpret those info is critically curtailed via lack of understanding of the techniques governing the move of chemical species from the air to the snow. This e-book outlines the capability and difficulties of ice middle chemistry and discusses the techniques considering air-snow move. It offers the nation of present wisdom and an schedule for destiny research.
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Additional info for Chemical Exchange Between the Atmosphere and Polar Snow
AIR SNOW RELATIONSHIPS Field measurements of gas phase HN01 and HCI in the Summit boundary layer were first performed in the summer 1991 at ATM site using annular denuders coated with NaF [Silvente, 1993; Silvente and Legrand, 1995]. In summer 1993, mist chamber sampling techniques were used for HNO), HCOOH, and CH)COOH by Dibb et al.  and for HNO), HCI, HCOOH, and CH 1COOH by Leopold . As seen in Table I, the three studies indicate HNO) mixing ratios in the range of a few tenths of pptv.
M,2. y(' (eg 8 cm of equivalent water) is large enough to strongly limit post depositional artefacts. Under 31 these specific conditions, we can speculate that changes of mean concentrations in ice corresponds to atmospheric changes. The atmospheric meaning of changing seasonal variations seen in south polar snow layers remains more questionable. 3. Long term ice records Both deep ice cores extracted from Greenland and Antarctica covering the last great climate changes which occurred some I 1,000 years ago have been scrutinized in order to investigate possible changes in the levels of gaseous acidic species in relation with the effect of the climate on their respective biogenic cycles.
Further down in the snow pack, the HCHO concentration is constant and does not show any seasonal variation. 2 Shallow core On shallow cores from Dye 3 and Summit Staffelbach (1991) found a 50% increase in the HCHO concentrations over the last 100 years which parallels the CH4 increase. Continuous measurements performed immediately after core recovery in Summer 1993 along a shallow core from Summ it confirmed the increase (Fuhrer K. pers. ). Freshly measured ice cores show no seasonal variation of the concentration, changes in the ±20% range do occur over a time scale of tens of years.