By D. L. Pyle (auth.), P. J. Fryer, D. L. Pyle, C. D. Rielly (eds.)
Industrial nutrients processing consists of the construction of extra price meals on a wide scale; those meals are made through blending and processing varied elements in a prescribed method. The nutrients undefined, traditionally, has no longer designed its tactics in an engineering feel, i.e. by way of realizing the actual and chemical rules which govern the operation of the plant after which utilizing these rules to strengthen a method. really, methods were 'designed' by way of paying for gear from quite a number providers after which connecting that apparatus jointly to shape a whole approach. while the method being run has primarily been scaled up from the kitchen then this won't topic. although, there are limits to the technique. • because the turns into extra subtle, and economies of scale are exploited, then the scale of plant reaches a scale the place systematic layout strategies are wanted. • the diversity of strategies and items made via the nutrients has elevated to incorporate meals that have no kitchen counterpart, similar to low-fat spreads. • it is necessary to make sure the standard and security of the product. • Plant has to be versatile and ready to do something about the necessity to make various items from a number components. this can be particularly vital as markets evolve with time. • the conventional layout procedure can't without problems deal with multi-product and multi-stream operations. • approaches has to be energetically effective and meet smooth environmen tal standards.
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Finally, in the following section of this chapter we consider briefly some elementary aspects of process economics. 3 Process economics There is surely no need here to emphasize the importance of economics in determining the viability of a process or product. In just the same way that a fully detailed mass and energy balance can only be elaborated when the detailed process design is complete, so the full details of the process economics will only be revealed when the process is up and running and the product has entered the market.
1 Introduction Energy is a vital and often expensive input into the process industries. The simpler sorts of question that commonly arise in the context of process design or operation are to calculate the heating or cooling requirements for a thermal process, such as sterilization, or the power requirements for a mixing or pumping operation. Sometimes energy will be required in the form of heat (typically as process steam) or sometimes as shaft power from a motive or electrical source. From a conceptual point of view, the energy source or sink may not be important, but it will have a considerable bearing on the process efficiency.
We should not allow ourselves to be mystified by the apparent sophistication and power of these methods: the fundamental principles are based on the laws of conservation, which have been introduced here. From a consideration of the conservation of mass we next move on to the conservation of energy. 1 Introduction Energy is a vital and often expensive input into the process industries. The simpler sorts of question that commonly arise in the context of process design or operation are to calculate the heating or cooling requirements for a thermal process, such as sterilization, or the power requirements for a mixing or pumping operation.