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By J. E. Spice and J. E. Spice (Auth.)

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All electrons with the same value of η are said to be in the same (principal) quantum shell. Within each such shell, electrons are grouped into sublevels according to the value of /, and hence of their energy, as shown in Fig. 16. Quantum Numbers and Electron Orbitals Besides determining the energy of an electron, the principal and subsidiary quantum numbers also determine respectively the size and the shape of the region of space in which it is most likely to be found. The larger is n9 the further from the nucleus is there an appreciable chance of finding the electron.

T o every possible state of an electron in an atom, there corresponds a particular set of four quantum numbers. The energy of the electron depends on the values of η and /. TT" ι I ΔΗΧ I ι Ionisation energy t Most readily "removed electron All levels fully occupied Energy FIG. 7 . Energy levels and ionisation energy. F o r the purpose of this book the mathematical expressions for the energy are unnecessary; it is sufficient to know that the energy is greater, the greater are η and /, and that the differences between energy levels corresponding to successive values of η or of / become less as the energy becomes greater.

Because the loss of electrons becomes more difficult as the group number increases, the dividing line between metals and non-metals runs diagonally across the table. Class 4 Three series of elements—titanium to nickel, zirconium to palladium, and hafnium to platinum—fall into this class. They differ from the electropositive metals of Class 2 in five important 3 CBS 52 Chemical Binding and Structure respects: multiplicity of valencies, ready formation of covalent bonds in both complex ions and neutral molecules, colour, para­ magnetism, and catalytic power.

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